The phenomenon of truancy
Chapter 3: Research Design
The intent of the survey is to look into the phenomenon of hooky and so to qualify the nature and associated factors, to guarantee appropriate direction thereof. It is envisaged that, with more penetration, effectual intercession schemes can be implemented.
Furthermore, secondary -education decision-makers may take consequences into history when school-attendance policies are reviewed.
The reappraisal of the literature presented in the predating chapters reveals that secondary school scholars continue to play awol and lose the educational chances provided by mandatory school ordinances. Learners who play awol limit their ain opportunities of geting the necessary accomplishments to fix themselves for future employment. We besides looked at the different types of hooky, insouciant factors and assorted attacks that have been used to cut down hooky. This chapter describes the manner the empirical survey is planned and conducted, and will concentrate on the undermentioned facets:
- The research inquiries ;
- The research method ;
3.2 Research Questions
The research worker together with the community of educationists are concerned about the fact that scholars continue to remain off from school by either losing the whole twenty-four hours of school or by losing certain lessons without permission from the school governments and parents. Students who play awol licking the purposes of the vision of the educational system which is based on fixing scholars for effectual citizenship and employability. The follow are the chief research inquiries that will be confronted in this survey.
- What is the extent and grade of hooky in footings of the frequence and figure of learns involved?
- What are the forms, type or nature of hooky?
- Where make hooky players travel when non at school or in category?
- What steps are used to supervise and pull off hooky?
3.3. The research instruments
3.3.1. The Questionnaire
To reply the research inquiries presented above, information was collected by agencies of a questionnaire ( See Appendix 1 ) . Using a questionnaire is appropriate for a assortment of grounds, viz. because it is economical, it ensures namelessness, peculiarly when covering with a big sample and it helps in developing a general image to a phenomenon within a community sing similar conditions ( Nardi, 2003 ; Punch, 1998 ) . Upon careful consideration of bing questionnaires from the literature, the research worker has decided to roll up a new one for the current survey. The points that are included in this questionnaire are based on facts that are likely to lend to researching the phenomenon of hooky and are derived from the literature reappraisal. Some of these points are determined by the research inquiries set for this survey.
The questionnaire employed for this first portion of the survey follows a quantitative attack. The determination to follow this design helps to research grounds of absenteeism from pupils ‘ positions, chiefly through the followers:
- Absenteeism against gender differences ;
- Absenteeism due to age and signifier ;
- Absenteeism due to school background ;
- Absenteeism with no ground ;
- Absenteeism due to household constructions ;
- Absenteeism related to repeated primary category ;
3.3.2. Pilot survey
Two processs were carried out during the pre-testing stage of the questionnaire. Harmonizing to Cooper and Schinder ( 2003 ) , the research worker may trust on experts when flying the instrument to place alterations that can be made with confusing points. Experts and co-workers included a caput of school and my supervisor who are experienced in research were heartily requested to analyze the questionnaire to look into whether there were any points that needed to be changed or rephrased, every bit good the rightness of the clip set for finishing the questionnaire. The following process involved completion of the questionnaire by a sample of 20 Form 1 pupils and 20 Form 2 pupils non included the sample. The points in the questionnaire were hence considered to be satisfactory in footings of both diction and format.
3.3.3. Validity and Reliability
Cogency refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what is it is supposed to mensurate. In order to set up its cogency the questionnaire was given to experts to find content and face cogency. Harmonizing to Johnson and Christensen ( 2004 ) , content cogency is a judgmental act where experts check whether the points represent the concept which is being studied every bit good as the diction, arranging and marking of the instruments. On the other manus, face cogency refers to the extend to which the respondents will comprehend the instruments as being valid to prove what it is suppose to prove ( Black, 1999 ) .
The extent to which the instrument will supply the same consequences on subsequent disposal known as dependability was statistically obtained. The Cronbach Alpha correlativity expression was used to cipher dependability. The value obtained is 0.83, which indicates that the dependability of the instrument is satisfactory.
The focal point of choice of participants for this survey centres on pupils and educational professionals in schools. For the quantitative survey, the mark population is Form 1 and Form 2 pupils in the secondary school degree. Schools identified for this research include State secondary schools and Church schools. State secondary schools include two types of schools, viz. the Junior Lyceum and the Area secondary school pupils. In the coming of the educational reform presently being undertaken in the Maltese educational system, a new construction of colleges is integrating both Junior Lyceum and Area secondary school pupils into one school. Data for this survey is collected from presently amalgamated schools and non-amalgamated schools.
For the qualitative survey of this research, a focal point group with a figure of educational professionals is carried out. Participants for the focal point group include ; capable instructors, PSD instructors, Guidance instructors and one Young person Worker. The qualitative survey besides includes two semi-structured in-depth interviews with one Head of School whose school has besides been targeted for the quantitative survey every bit good as a Guidance instructor from the Guidance Unit in the province educational sector.
3.4.1 The Quantitative Study
Six different schools have been selected at random, integrating two Junior Lyceum schools, two Area Secondary schools and two Church schools. An mean equal sample of respondents was collected from each class of schools and is including a balanced sample from male childs and misss schools.
The study questionnaire was administered to Form 1 and Form 2 pupils of the three school classs. The disposal of the study was carried out after reception of blessing both by the Planning and Development Department within the Directorate for Quality and Standards in Education ( DQSE ) every bit good as by the schools targeted for informations aggregation. The existent disposal of the study was carried out in coaction with the school disposals and was chiefly distributed through the support of the Personal and Social Development ( PSD ) instructors who administrated the study and collected the duly filled questionnaires. The research worker finally made agreements with the school disposals to roll up the studies. The research worker besides engaged in informations aggregation processs to roll up informations from schools within her range.
The questionnaire consisted of three chief subdivisions, including ( I ) demographics, ( two ) forms, type and nature of hooky and ( three ) policies undertaken at a school degree to battle hooky and school absenteeism. Following the necessary clean-up of unsatisfactorily filled questionnaires, the entire figure of questionnaires employed for analysis consisted of 1000 to the full returned studies.
3.4.2 The Qualitative Study
The qualitative survey incorporates two research designs. The first will be a focal point group and the 2nd will affect semi-structured in-depth interviews. The focal point group is intended to roll up informations from educational professionals on the manifestation and policies adopted across the three school classs on hooky and school absenteeism. Identified participants for this focal point group includes capable instructors, P.S.D. instructors, counsel instructors and one young person worker who is employed on a parttime footing by the Directorate of Educational Services. The interview agenda for the focal point group is here presented in Appendix 2.
The semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a Head of School and a Counselor from the counsel and reding unit. The interview agenda for these interviews was developed from the literature reappraisal carried out in chapter 2, the informations obtained from the quantitative survey and the feedback obtained from the focal point group. These interviews are intended to endorse up the quantitative analysis and to supply extra penetration on current patterns and schemes adopted to battle school hooky and absenteeism ( See Appendix 3 ) .
The initial program was to include all pupils registered for Form1 and Form2 categories in the identified schools. A little figure of pupils in each category were regarded as absent at the clip of informations aggregation. When using for the relevant permissions, the Research Planning and Development section clearly indicated the research worker to curtail the research to a lower limit of pupils, instructors, decision makers, schools and to avoid any waste of clip during the visits to schools. As a effect to the limitations made upon the research worker, a purposive sample of participants undertook the procedure of informations aggregation for this survey.
3.6 Datas Processing
The nature of the information here being investigated reflects features in the general population that should non convey out any differences between males and females on behaviors of hooky and school absenteeism. In this respect the statistical analysis will use the non parametric step of rating viz. Chi square. Any ascertained differences will function to accept or reject the void hypotheses on these parametric quantities. Any important differences ensuing from this analysis would assist to accept the alternate hypotheses from the sample of participants in this survey, hence bring forthing evidences for accepting the alternate hypotheses.
All the informations shall be analysed utilizing the Statistical bundle for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) version 17.
This chapter provided an overview of how this survey was planned and conducted. This chapter has besides presented research inquiries for the current survey and identified the research instruments to roll up informations in this respect. The research design is constructed upon a quantitative survey and a qualitative survey with well-thought-of instruments. Elementss of cogency and dependability of the questionnaire and the pilot testing of this instrument present an first-class scenario for a valid information aggregation procedure. The participants for this survey include pupils every bit good as instructors and other professionals working in close contact with the phenomenon here under probe. This chapter presented a elaborate reappraisal of the trying method every bit good as the features of both surveies to be carried out. Finally restrictions in the research design are besides presented. The consequences of the empirical survey are presented in the following chapter.