Stages of Development, Erik Erikson

Last Updated: 08 May 2020
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Besides using Erosion's theory, this report also includes certain theories from Piglet's. Each event's or crisis that Mr.. Alan claims to be occurred will be compared and contrasted In this essay report. Stage One: Trust versus Wasters (Birth to 1 year old) Stage one occurred during the infancy stage. During this stage, Mr.. Alan said he could not remember any single event or any formed of crisis occurred in his infancy stage. But, according to him, his sisters told stones about him during his younger age from time to time. According to his sisters, Mr..

Alan was considered a difficult baby because he cried a lot and was a very emotional infant. Difficult babies are loud, active, and tend to be crabby rather than happy (Cellared, ; White, 2006). "Each and every time he cried, he only asked for 3 things. They were food, comfort and attention. " His sisters answered when they were asked about Mr.. Élan's reasons for crying. I believe Mr.. Alan had learnt to trust his sisters for being attentive when he needed some attention. This is because his needs such as foods and comfort were met due to the attention given by his sisters.

According to Erosion's psychosocial stages of development, is babies' needs are met, they learnt to trust people and expect life to be pleasant. If babies' needs are not met, they learn not to trust and in belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable (Cherry, n. D. ). Stage Two: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years old) In stage two, Mr.. Alan as a toddler once accidentally pee in his pants and was ashamed because his siblings teased him for the incident. Due to this incident, Mr.. Alan started to doubt his own abilities and started to have low self esteem. Mr..

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Alan claims he remembered that particular incident because during that time, it was the most shameful time of his toddler's life. However, Mr.. Élan's self confidence was lifted when he managed to Otto trained himself after Just a short period of time. Before the potty train Incident, Mr.. Alan recalled of his parents tends to tells others like his relatives of how fast and how well he learnt to walk compared to his other sisters. Mr.. Alan does not remember the process of his first step but he told the Interviewer, "Any children who hears his or her parents praising him, obviously will be proud and happy and his or herself confidence increases. During this stage, toddlers start to realize that they can direct their very own behavior (Chapman, 2011). Well, taken from his statement, It had proven that Mr.. Alan had successfully passed stage 2 and felt he himself is independent where he could know or control when he wants to urine since he mastered potty training. Yet, there will be doubts about Mr.. Élan's claims like his shame for the potty training incident. This is because; brain structures such as the limbic system, which Includes the hippopotamus and the magical and Is involved in figment of Mr.. Élan's imagination.

Learning to walk is also another way to show he learnt to be independent. Walking had showed that Mr.. Alan had the will and self confident of himself walking rather than sitting, waiting and wanting others to carry IM to move about. Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt (3 to 5 years old) During those days, Mr.. Élan's surrounding were much safer compared to today. Mr.. Alan and his friends were always running around the camping area like any other children does. He was the naughtiest preschooler in his camping. One day, Mr.. Alan shop lifted a few sweets from his father's friend's shop, Mr..

ABA. Since he is tempted by the sweets he had stolen, Mr.. Alan went and stolen those sweet for a few more times. At the fifth time, he was caught red-handed by Mr.. ABA and he immediately contacted Mr.. Élan's father. Mr.. Élan's father apologized and paid back Mr.. Abs's losses. Mr.. Alan was brought back home and was punished by his parents and hit his right palm that was used to commit the crime. The following day, Mr.. Alan went to Mr.. Abs's shop, personally apologized and taken full responsibility for shop lifting. He promised Mr.. ABA that he is willing to help out whenever he is free.

Mr.. ABA was proud of his actions and forgiven him. During this stage, preschoolers are challenged to control their own behavior, such as controlling their behavior when they are in a restaurant. Mr.. Alan show responsibilities towards the crime he committed and had the initiative to apologized and help out at the shop. Preschoolers who succeed in taking responsibility, they feel capable and develop initiative (McMahon, 1990) but if they do not, preschoolers will feel irresponsible, anxious and guilty (Sharked, 1997). It seems that after the incident, Mr..

Alan looked to be controlling his behavior and not being a nuisance in the family. Stage Four: Industry versus Inferiority (5 to 12 years old) At the age of 6, Mr.. Alan learnt new skills of being a rubber taper. His father always reminded him not to cut too tap the rubber trees too deep to avoid the tree from getting hurt and maximized the amount of the latex collected. Besides learning of rubber tapping, Mr.. Élan's mother taught him how to pluck coffee beans from coffee plants. Due to the family financial crisis, at a very young age children are needed to help out their family in the farms and plantation.

Around the age of 7, Mr.. Alan was the only person who was sent to an Elementary Chinese School at their neighboring camping. There, Mr.. Alan learnt to speak proper Chinese and how to write Chinese words. Besides that, Mr.. Alan learnt how to speak Malay but fails to speak English because his subject teacher did not conduct the classes accordingly. In 1941, The Japanese invasion changed Mr.. Alan and his family life in Just an overnight. His family only had a meal a day and lack of rice for everyone. During the period of 5 years, Mr..

Alan learnt to self defense to protect his family in case of emergency. He even learnt to create secret compartment in his house to hide foods from being taken away by the Japanese soldiers. The Japanese soldiers were forced to leave Malay in 1945 and left some serious effect on the villagers. At this stage, Mr.. Alan started to gain lots of new skills from different timing and situation. Some were educational; there were forced to learn up. During this stage, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge (Harder, 2009).

Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self confidence each time they children will fail to develop new abilities, they feel irresponsible, anxious, and guilty (Baker, 2011). That was what Mr.. Alan felt when he failed to speaks or write English in school. It was because he was not encouraged and praised properly by his English teacher. Stage Five: Identity versus Role Confusion (13 to early twenties) At this point of life, Mr.. Alan started to think about his future and what lays ahead him. The Japanese invasion caused him to be much more aggressive than his usual self.

Mr.. Alan felt confuse on who he should be either fierce or loving, on what beliefs he should trust, his occupation in the future and to stay or to leave school. In the end, Mr.. Alan decided to leave school and starts to work as a rubber taper. This is due to peer influence; he believes that education is not important. Mr.. Élan's father arranged a marriage for him at the age of 18. During that time, it was not against the norm to be marrying at the age of 16 or 17. After getting married, Mr.. Alan finds himself not only playing the role as a son but also as a husband.

After finding his real self, Mr.. Alan found it easier to blend in with the crowd and understands people's body language. Mr.. Alan was glad that he had his very own identity and plans the future for his family. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing and beliefs (Before, 2006). Mr.. Alan begins to persuade his career at a very young age in the rubber industry and developed strong sense of identity.

Adolescence at this stage is facing with who or what they want to be by developing a sense of self by testing roles, then integrating then to form a single identity (Erikson, 1968). Any adults who succeed in defining who they are and finding a role for themselves develop a strong sense of identity (Grotto, 2011). But for adults, who fail to define their identity, will become confused and withdraw or want to inconspicuously blend in with the crowd. Stage Six: Intimacy versus Isolation (Twenties and thirties) During the first 3 years of marriage, Mr..

Alan isolated himself from his wife because he does not know or even meant his wife before. Basically he and his wife both agreed to sleep apart by placing a pillow in the middle of the bed. After a long period of time living together, Mr.. Alan and his wife have more and more topics in common. Soon, during the third year of marriage, Mr.. Alan took his wife to the hospital for a checkup because she was unhealthy. End up, her medical report shows that she was pregnant. Months later, Mr.. Élan's wife Mrs.. Brandy was rushed into the hospital for labor. At that moment, Mr.. Alan hoped both mother and child will be alright.

The feeling of excitement, Joy and worries for hours almost caused Mr.. Alan to have a panic attack. After 2 hours, Mrs.. Brandy and her new born baby was out from the operation theater. At this point, Mr.. Élan's role as a husband has Just change into a father. Mr.. Alan has to rearrange his time for work, his wife and his child. At the young adult stage, they start to seek for a long life partner to be settled down and start their very own family (Erikson, 1968). Mr.. Alan had been married with his wife for 3 years but yet to have engaged in any sexual or intimate relationship.

When he reached his twenties, this as the time he bonded a relationship with his wife and the desire of expending the family. Young adults seek for deep intimacy and satisfying relationship, but if they fail, isolation and loneliness may occur (Hall, n. D. ). Successful young adults who had relationships at this stage are with marital partners and friends. Stage Seven: Generatively versus Stagnation (Forties and fifties) Mr.. And Mrs.. Élan's children grew from years to years. Mr.. Alan recalls how he manages his children's education and encourages them to finish their high school years and not be a drop out like Mr.. Alan was.

Due to his past, he is afraid his future generation will follow his footsteps to be uneducated. This is because, during his time, the society does not need a high level of education. Whereas, for his children's generation, they demand a higher form of education needed to be successful in life. Mr.. Alan also supports his children in their education by finding a good and affordable university for his children. Besides supporting his children in the education sector, Mr.. Alan gives advice and shares his experiences with the younger generation in order to avoid them from getting into the same mistakes as he did before.

At the age of 45, Mr.. Alan made his first million with the help from some friends and family by investing into the palm oil industry so that he will have enough to feed the younger generation in the future. Generatively is primarily the concern for establishing and guiding the next generation (Hall, 2001). This failure of generatively can lead to profound persona; stagnation, masked by a variety of escapism, such as alcohol and drug abuse, and sexual and other infidelities. Mid-life crisis might occur (Mcleod, 2008 ). During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our family and career.

Those who are successful during this phrase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community (Sullivan, 2011). Mr.. Alan managed to success in both family and career to contribute to his family members and the society. He contributed to the family by sponsoring his children to school and universities and for the societies; he shares his experiences with them. Stage Eight: Ego Integrity versus Despair (Sixties and beyond) Mr.. Alan is now a retired old man and blessed with many grandchildren. Every month, Mr.. Alan will donate a decent amount of money to hearty and help them out every weekend.

Every morning, Mr.. Alan and his wife will exercise at the park near where they stay. According to Mr.. Élan's children, Mr.. Alan often emphasize that family is always first and nothing is more important than family. When the interviewer asked Mr.. Alan, "if he is satisfied with the outcome of his life and if he could return in time and changes it what will it be? " He answered, miss, I am very satisfied with the outcome today. If I am able to change anything, I will choose to known my wife earlier in life. " Mr.. Élan's answers pointed out that he had cached a sense of wholeness and acceptance of his life.

Besides that, Mr.. Alan seems to enjoy his life and need not need to fear of death. According to Erosion's psychosocial stages of development, elderly people who succeed in addressing whether a person will reach wisdom, spiritual tranquility, a sense of wholeness, and acceptance of his or her life. If they fail, elderly people will feel that their empty and fear of death (Heifer, 2011). Conclusion In a nut shell, Mr.. Alan successfully deals with the crisis stated by Erik Erikson. Some behavior seems to be impossible but no one could proofs whether it is the truth or it s a lie.

Some concepts of Erosion's seem to be related to Piglet's. For example, the sensory stage, operational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage. The sensory stage is where babies start to explore by looking, start learning to use words. Thirdly, concrete operational stage is where children gain the capability to count and learn grammars. Lastly, formal operation is where teenagers are capable of abstract thinking (Pigged, 1983). Besides of Piglet's, some of Fraud's theory are related as well. Like the oral stage where a Mr.. Alan used his mouth for feeding and attention.

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Stages of Development, Erik Erikson. (2018, Sep 21). Retrieved from

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