Review of Medicine Literature

Review of Literature
How is health promotion defined? Health promotion is a process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health (WHO, 2013). People involved in health promotion should consider the meaning of what do they think health means relating to themselves and to others. This will assist with clarifying outcomes and expectations (Edelman & Mandle, 2010, p. 3). In order for health promotion to have a successful outcome, people must take control over all aspects of their health and life. People must be held accountable for their life decisions. Health promotion is the science of helping people change their lifestyle and behaviors. This paper will discuss the purpose of health promotion, the nursing roles and responsibilities, implementation methods, and a comparison of the three levels of health promotion prevention. Purpose of Health Promotion

The purpose of health promotion is to provide education. The emergence with new computer technology allows for much more access to knowledge. The internet and smart phones have a vast base of information. It provides all forms of information. People can then make an informed decision. The ultimate goal of the health promotion model is to promote a sense of well-being, not just the absence of disease (“GCU,”2013, p. 1). Health promotion is used on the private level, the public level, and also the community level (Edelman & Mandle, 2010.). These levels are all important for the educational process. Along with improving patient outcomes, health promotion helps to decrease the costs that are always increasing in healthcare.

Nursing Roles and Responsibilities

Nurses are responsible to educate patients in every aspect. They are the primary care givers in the medical setting. The rapport that is developed leaves a lasting impression. They are able to discuss the positive aspects of prevention and how this can provide a better life for the patient. Nurses are advocates, consultants, care managers, educators, healers, and researchers. They are part of the multidisciplinary team that provides health promotion. Their roles and responsibilities develop gradually with the improvement of health. They educate in life changing activities with a holistic approach. This would include stress management, the introduction to healthy foods, the promotion of increased physical activity, the increased benefits of adequate sleep, the reduction of alcohol, and smoking cessation.


Nurses implement health promotion by providing appropriate care to all patients. Culture and diversity should be taken into consideration. Nurses need to maintain the patients’ identity and privacy. They practice the code of moral principles and values. This is met by treating patients equal regardless of age, seriousness of disease, or different cultural background. Nurses can help implement programs. They can make patients aware of resources to provide a safe environment or a vaccination program for their children.

Three Levels of Health Promotion

There are three levels of health promotion. These levels are primary, secondary, and tertiary. Prevention is not only inclusive of health promotion and preventing diseases, but also curing them and limiting the progression of disease. There is no distinctive flow pattern between the three levels, but there is an overlap at times. These three levels will be discussed in relationship to three recent journal articles.


The primary level of health promotion is considered to be educational and preventative by nature. This is in process prior to a problem. The primary prevention article discusses motivational interviewing. Women have a lack of risk perception. Through screening, risk factors are brought to light. They should be screened for past medical history, family history, smoking, physical activity, and diet. Research suggests that women should be screened using the Framingham Risk Assessment of 10-year Global Risk (Schroetter & Peck, 2008, p. 109). This is a risk predictor. It calculates a woman’s chance for experiencing a heart attack. Nurses should also promote awareness by the various government programs such as WISEWOMAN and Go Red for Women. These are two campaigns that increase awareness of heart disease.


Secondary prevention consists of early detection and diagnosis, timely treatment, and limiting disability. This would encompass mass screening surveys and selective examinations used to prevent, spread, and cure the disease process. Through limiting disabilities and providing the adequate treatment, the goal would be to prevent progression of the disease and the complications associated with the disease. Secondary prevention of stroke has focused on medical and surgical interventions.

Healthcare professionals should use a multimodal approach, combining optimal medical therapies with interventions designed to support patients to make changes in lifestyle behaviors (Lawrence, Fraser, Woods, & McCall, 2011, p. 42). This model consists of combining medical treatment (medications) with comprehensive dietary modifications and exercise. These medications would include aspirin, statins, and antihypertensives. Nurses need to have a good understanding of the risk factors for stroke. They should also know the recommendations for healthy lifestyle choices. Interventions should be tailored to each patient.


The tertiary level is the care and education given after the diagnosis of a disease. This level also includes restoration and rehabilitation. It also includes educating the public with selective placement and various work therapies in the hospital setting. There are many vaccines that can be considered a preventative measure for infectious diseases. Any vaccination can be given to an oncology patient if there are no contraindications. The influenza vaccination is an example that will be utilized. It is a recommendation for cancer patients. A first recommendation was made by a gynecologist.

This was for the tertiary prevention with a patient with uterine cancer. Patients that are vaccinated have a significant longer survival period (Wiwanitkit, 2010, p. 339). The influenza vaccination can decrease the infection rate and mortality due to influenza. It has been thought that oncology patients receive the vaccination. All three levels of health promotion are equal in that they educate. The difference in educating is related to the disease process and the patients’ willingness to learn.