Last Updated 06 Apr 2021

Joint Problems Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay

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    Patellofemoral articulation jobs are the most common overuse hurt of the lower appendage, and altered femoral or hep rotary motion may plays a major function in patellofemoral hurting

    Patellofemoral hurting syndrome ( PFPS ) is the 2nd most common musculoskeletal ailment presented to physical therapists ( Witvrouw et al, 1996. Hilyard, 1990 ) . Studies has shown Patello Femoral Pain Syndrome to be the most common individual diagnosing among smugglers and in athleticss medical specialty centres. Eleven per centum of musculoskeletal ailments in the office scenes are caused by anterior articulatio genus hurting ( which most normally consequences from PFPS, constitutes 16-25 % of all hurts in smugglers ) . The term PFPS is frequently used interchangeably with `` anterior articulatio genus hurting '' or `` smuggler 's articulatio genus '' .

    Patellofemoral hurting syndrome can be defined as retropatellar or peripatellar hurting ensuing from physical and biomechanical alterations in the patellofemoral articulation. It should be distinguished from chondromalacia, which is existent fraying and harm to the underlying patellar gristle.

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    Patients with patellofemoral hurting syndrome have anterior articulatio genus hurting that typically occurs with activity and frequently worsens when they are falling stairs or hills. It can besides be exacerbated by activities such as go uping stepss, crouching, kneeling, drawn-out posing ( Doucette and Goble, 1992 ) . The oncoming of the symptom is normally insidious ( Arroll et al, 1997: Hilyard, 1990 ) . One or both articulatio genus can be affected.

    Many factors are involved in complex interactions that influence the patellofemoral articulation and the exact aetiology and pathophysiology of PFPS is frequently puzzling ( Fulkerson and Hungerford, 1990 ; Finestone et Al, 1993 ) . Many theories have been proposed to explicate the etiology of the patellofemoral hurting. These include mechanical, muscular and over use theories. There is consensus that malalignment and maltracking of the kneecap are major characteristics of PFPS ( Maclntyre and Robertson,1992: Gerrard, 1989 ) .

    The patellar maltracking consequences in unnatural joint emphasis and subsequent articular gristle ware ( Powers: 1998 ) . Lateral trailing of the kneecap has been listed as a major subscriber to malalignment which consequences in unnatural joint compaction and later patellar hurting.

    It is normally theorized that maltracking is the consequence of vastus medialis ( VM ) weakening comparative to the vastus lateralis ( VL ) , ensuing in sidelong trailing of kneecap ( Mc Conell, 1986 ) . Weak hip muscular structure is besides thought to lend to unnatural trailing of kneecap. Ireland et Al found that adult females with PFPS are 26 % weaker hip abduction and 36 % weaker in hip internal rotary motion compared

    with healthy controls. Such failing may do an addition in both varus force vector at the articulatio genus a combination that may farther ease median trailing of kneecap.

    Lower appendage malalignment ( caused by abnormalcies such as an increased standing 'Q ' angle, pes planus or subtalar pronation ) frequently has been implicated as a cause of PFPS.

    Most patients with PFPS respond favorably to conservative intercession. These include quadriceps beef uping, patellar tape, patellar brace, stretching, soft tissue mobilisation. With the most common intervention being quadriceps beef uping utilizing weight bearing and non weight bearing exercisings, weight bearing exercisings are more functional than non weight bearing exercisings because they require multijoint motion, easing a functional form of musculus enlisting and stimulate proprioceptors.

    In an attempt to supply immediate decrease to trouble, Mc Conell proposed utilizing tape to modify patellar orientation and normalise patellar trailing. When handling patients with patellofemoral hurting who demonstrate deficiency of control of hip abduction and external rotary motion during weight bearing activities such as walking and falling steps, one end may to be to optimise musculus map to command these gestures, as such motion can ensue in knee varus, an addition in dynamic 'Q ' angle and greater median forces moving on the kneecap. Hence, it would look sensible to endeavor for optimum map of hip muscular structure.

    Background and purpose of the study

    Despite its prevalence, nevertheless the etiology and specific intervention of this hurting syndrome remain obscure and controversial. The premiss behind most intervention attacks is that Patellofemoral hurting syndromes is the consequence of malalignment and/or unnatural patellar trailing. Interventions are frequently focused locally and typically include quadriceps beef uping, patellar tape, patellar brace and soft tissue mobilisation. Based on the old researches, we theorized that the exercisings stressing neuromuscular control of both the quadriceps and hip median rotators may profit patients diagnosed with PFPS. Therefore, the intent of this survey was to look into the effects of hip median rotators and quadriceps beef uping plan in patients with patellofemoral hurting syndrome.

    Need and significance of study

    To cut down hurting

    To better scope of gesture

    To better functional activity


    To find the effectivity of median rotator musle and quadriceps beef uping in patellofemoral hurting

    To find the effectivity of quadriceps beef uping in patellofemoral hurting

    To compare the effectivity of quadriceps beef uping and median rotator musculus beef uping exercising in patellofemoral hurting


    The void hypothesis for this survey could be stated as `` There Is No Significant Difference In Reduction Of Pain between the group having Hip Medial Rotator and Quadriceps Muscle Strengthening when compared with Quadriceps Muscle Strengthening entirely in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain '' .

    Cibulka MT, Threlkeld-Watkins J. , 2005 has reported that patellofemoral hurting is the commonest of all the overexploitation hurts of the lower limb. Major cause for this is considered to be altered femoral rotary motion.

    Powers CM. , 2003 has demonstrated that patellar maltracking and malalignment are the commonest triggering factors for kneecap femoral hurting.

    Mascal CL, Landel R, Powers C 2003 has concluded in their survey that musces of hip, bole and pelvic girdle are affected in patellofemoral hurting syndrome and hence intercessions directed towards these muscular structure should be included in the rehabilitation protocol.

    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt LW 1988 has published a survey on WOMAC graduated table reasoning that WOMAC is the most dependable and valid graduated table for measuring arthritis.

    Braten M, Terjesen T, Rossvoll I 1992 has demonstrated that ultrasound analysis of hip in anterior articulatio genus hurting reveals femoral rotary motion in most of the patients.

    Sameer A.Dixit, M.D. , et al Management of patellofemoral hurting syndrome shown that physical therapy is effectual in handling PFPS.

    La Brier K, O ' Neill D.B, Patellofemoral syndrome, current constructs. This survey indicate that patellofemoral hurting syndrome is normally treated cautiously, surveies indicate that 60 % to 89 % of articulatio genuss will react favorably to conservative intervention. The exercising plan include Iliotibial set, hamstring and gastrocnemius stretching, progressive opposition straight leg elevation and hip adduction beef uping performed 2 times/ twenty-four hours until symptoms subside and the 3 times /week, thenceforth.

    Heintjes, Berger MY, Bierma- Zeinstra SM, Exercise therapy for patellofemoral hurting syndrome stated that the exercising therapy is more effectual in handling PFPS. There is strong grounds that unfastened and closed kinetic concatenation exercising are every bit effectual.

    Hudson Z, Daruthy E. Iliotibial set stringency and patellofemoral hurting syndrome. A instance - control survey show that the topics showing with PFPS do hold a tighter ITB.

    Fagan V, Delahunt E, Patellofemoral pain syndrome- a reappraisal of the associated neuromuscular shortages and current intervention options stated that `` Physiotherapy intervention programmes look to be an efficacious method of bettering quads instability.

    Power et, Al, ( 1997 ) , patient performed free walking, fast walking, go uping and falling walking with and without patellar taping. Taping determined patient 's hurting reduced ( VAS ) 50 % during exacerbating activity.

    Ernst GP, Kawaguchi. J, Saliba E. Effect of Patellar Taping on articulatio genus dynamicss of patients with patellofemoral hurting syndrome, suggests that patellar taping compared with no tape may better the articulatio genus extensor minute and power during weight bearing activities such as sidelong measure - up exercising and perpendicular leap.

    Cristina mare Nunes cabral, Amellia Pasqual Marques, Effect of a closed kinetic concatenation exercising protocol on patellofemoral syndrome rehabilitation. The consequences of T he study allow the suggestion that the proposed quadriceps femoris beef uping exercisings with ROM control should be prescribed for PFPS patients since they improve knee functional degree.

    Avraham.F, Aviv.S et al. , The efficaciousness of intervention of different intercession plans for patellofemoral hurting syndrome. The survey with a sum of 30 back-to-back patients ( average age 35 old ages ) diagnosed with PFPS indiscriminately allocated into 3 groups. Group I - Conventional Rehabilitation plan included quadriceps beef uping and TENS, Group II- Hip oriented rehabilitation plan included stretching, hip external rotator strengthening and TENS. Group III-A combination of 2 plans.

    At terminal of test all groups show important betterment in VAS and PFJES ( P & lt ; 0.0001 ) ; these betterment did non vary significantly between the 3 groups. All the groups show a similar good consequence.

    Tyler TF, Nicholas SJ, Mullaney MJ. The function of hip musculus map in the intervention of patellofemoral hurting syndrome. This survey concluded that betterments in hip flexure strength combined with increased iliotibial set and iliopsoas flexibleness were associated with first-class consequences in patients with patellofemoral hurting syndrome.

    Harmonizing to Muir KR ( 1999 ) . a individual plan of place quadriceps can significantly better ego reported articulatio genus hurting and map.

    Cheng GL et Al in their survey conducted for four hebdomads intervention period, concluded that both TENS and isometric groups had important decrease in articulatio genus hurting.

    Sheila O ' Reilly made a survey on 192 work forces and adult females with articulatio genus hurting. They were enrolled in a plan consisting of isometric and isosmotic exercisings of the quadriceps or thigh, utilizing a opposition set and they had important lessening in hurting ( 22.5 % ) and betterment in physical map ( 17.4 % ) . She besides stated that beef uping musculuss around an creaky articulation could back up the joint and cut down hurting.

    Lam PL, NG QY, Activation of the quadriceps musculus during semi crouching with different hip and knee place in patients with anterior articulatio genus hurting, the survey shows that there was comparatively more activation of vastus medialis oblique than vastus lateralis at 40A° of semi knee bend with hip medially rotated by 30A° .

    iHerrington L. AL - Sherhi.A, A controlled test of weight bearing versus non weight bearing exercisings for patellofemoral hurting. This survey demonstrates that both weight - bearing and non weight bearing exercisings can significantly better subjective and clinical results in patients with PFPS.

    Ng GY, Cheng JM, The effects of patellar taping on hurting and neuromuscular public presentation in topics with patellofemoral hurting syndrome. This survey states that there was a important lessening in anterior articulatio genus hurting ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) and vastus medialis obliques to vastus lateralis activity ratio ( P - 0.05 ) during individual legged standing after patellar tape.

    Mark overington, BHSc ( Physio ) , Damain Gooddard, BhSc ( Physio ) . , A Critical assessment and literature review on the consequence of patellar tape, is patellar taping effectual in the patellofemoral hurting syndrome? This critical analysis has shown that patellar taping lessenings pain in the short term, may be utile as an adjunct to physiotherapy in long term

    T.K. Amell, J.P. Stothart, S. Kumar, The effectivity of functional pes orthoses as a intervention for patellofemoral emphasis syndrome: A clients position. The consequences shows that orthotic usage is believed to be effectual in commanding the symptoms of PFPS.

    Michael T. Gross, PT. Ph.D. , Jody L. Foxworth, PT, MS, OCS, The Role of pes orthoses as an intercession for patellofemoral hurting. The mechanism for pes orthoses holding a positive consequence on hurting and map for these patients.

    Dr. Robert Topp assessed the hurting, map, abilities, knee joint proprioception, pace features and quadriceps strength of 135 participants utilizing randomized isometric strength preparation group and a dynamic strength preparation group for 16 hebdomad regimen and concluded that regular strength preparation could detain the oncoming of this painful disease and demand for surgery

    Van Berr et Al, ( 1999 ) found that aerophilic exercising was more effectual than opposition exercising in cut downing hurting. There was modest betterment in disablement degree for patients randomized to aerobic exercising.

    Michelle C. Boilig, MS, ATC. , et al. , Outcomes of a weight bearing rehabilitation plan for patients diagnosed with patellofemoral hurting syndrome. Subjects diagnosed with PFPS responded favorably and rapidly to a curative exercising plan that incorporated quadriceps and his muscular structure strengthening.

    Catherine L. Mascal PT, B.Sc. , Robert Landel, DPT, OSC, Christopher power, PT, Ph..D. Management of Patellofemoral hurting Targeting the Hip, Pelvis and Trunk Muscle map: instance study. This instance study present 2 patients with PFP who demonstrated unnatural kinematics at the hip and who respond favourably to an exercising plan specifically aiming to Hip, Pelvis and trunk muscular structure.

    Materials and methodology

    The survey was conducted in the format of experimental pre-test, station trial survey design. The survey was conducted in the section of physical medical specialty and rehabilitation, Ramakrishna Hospital, Coimbatore-641044 under the supervising of usher incharge, College Of Physiotherapy, SRIPMS, Coimbatore. 20 Subject who fulfilled the undermentioned criterias were selected through simple random sampling and assigned to two groups of 10 each.

    Criteria for sample selection

    Inclusion standards:

    • Age between 25-35 old ages
    • Both males and females
    • Unilateral patellofemoral hurting syndrome and median rotator musculus weekness.
    • Anterior or retropatellar articulatio genus hurting reported during at least two of the undermentioned activities: rise and falling step, skiping and running, crouching, kneeling, and prolonged posing.
    • Insidious oncoming of symptoms non related to injuries.
    • Pain with compaction of kneecap.
    • Pain on tactual exploration of patellar aspects.

    Exclusion Criteria:

    • Symptoms nowadays for less than two months
    • No history of old articulatio genus hurting
    • Metallic element implants
    • Fleshiness
    • Diabetess
    • Peripheral vascular disease

    Self reported clinical grounds of other articulatio genus pathology. Such as intra articular pathology, peripatellar tendonitis or bursitis, fold, disruptions or subluxations etc.

    Current important hurt impacting other lower appendage articulations.

    Subjects with any of the above said conditions were excluded from survey.


    Group A:

    Subjects were treated with Hip median rotator and quadriceps beef uping exercisings and stretching.

    Group B:

    Subjects were treated with lone quadriceps beef uping exercisings and stretching.

    Both group received the place programme of stretching and beef uping exercisings ( SEE APPENDIX - Four )

    This survey is proposed to be carried out for the period of 6 months.

    Group A: 5 sets of 12 repeats per twenty-four hours 3 years per hebdomad for 4 hebdomads

    Group B: 5 sets of 12 repeats per twenty-four hours 3 years per hebdomad for 4 hebdomads

    Parameters :

    Subjective hurting strength during activities of day-to-day life measured with ocular parallel graduated table ( VAS ) .

    Functional activities measured with western Lake Ontario andmcmaster universities osteoarthritis index ( womac )

    Materials used :

    • Orthopedic rating chart
    • Thera set
    • Strengthening sofa
    • Inch tape

    Statistical Tool

    The consequences of the survey were analysed utilizing independent 't ' trial

    T =

    S =

    = Mean difference of the first group

    = Mean difference of the 2nd group

    = Number of samples in first group

    = Number of samples in 2nd group

    S = Combined criterion divergence

    Treatment techniques

    Hip internal rotators beef uping

    Еhis exercising is performed with the patient standing in the exercising machine. Initially 5 sets of 12 repeats get downing with 9kg is done and later opposition is increased harmonizing to musculus weariness and hurting.

    Quadriceps Strengthening:


    Position yourself as shown above. Keep your right leg straight for 10-20 seconds and so loosen up. Make the exercisings 5-10 times.

    Straight Leg Raising:

    Position yourself as shown above. Raise your right leg several inches and keep it up for 5-10 seconds. Then lower your leg to the floor easy over a few seconds. Do the exercisings 5-10 times.

    Partial Knee bends:

    Stand with pess, shoulder width apart and toes somewhat turned out. Bend articulatio genuss from traveling in forepart toes. Squat every bit low as tolerable, intermission at lowest deepness and raise to get downing place. It can besides be done with back support on wall and with ball between 2 articulatio genuss.

    Step Up:

    Stand sideways with involved leg next to 3-6 '' measure. Place involved pes on measure and easy raise organic structure weight with involved leg. Slowly lower organic structure back to get down place gently touching heel on

    land, so repetition by easy raising organic structure with involved leg. Repeat as by increasing repeat. Increase measure 2-3 '' with repeat.

    Stretching Exercise

    Iliotibial Band Buttock Stretch: ( Right side )

    Position yourself as shown in the image. Writhe your bole to the right and utilize your left arm to `` force '' your right leg. You should experience the stretch in your right thigh. ( Hold the stretch for 10 to 20 seconds. Do the exercising 5 to 10 times ) .

    Iliotibial Band Stretch: ( Left Side )

    Position yourself as shown below, with your right leg crossed in forepart of your left leg. Keep your custodies together and travel them toward the floor. You should experience a stretch in the outer portion of your left thigh. ( Hold the stretch for 10 to 20 seconds. Do the exercising 5 to 10 times. )

    Hamstrings stretch:

    Liing in back and back uping thigh behind articulatio genus, easy straighten articulatio genus until a stretch is felt in the dorsum of the thigh. Keep it for 5 to 10 seconds. Repeat it for 5 to 10 times. The thigh may besides be supported on a wall.

    Quadriceps Stretch:

    Position with one manus on the wall and the other on the pes of the side to be stretched and the articulatio genus is flexed. Keep it for 5 to 10 seconds. Repeat it for 5 to 10 times. Can be performed with hip flexure and extension.

    Calf Stretch:

    Position against a wall with heel on the land to experience back of the leg stretch. Keep for 10 to 20 seconds. Do the exercisings 6 to 10 times.

    Hip And Buttock Stretch: ( Left Side )

    Position left over right leg and manus is placed over left articulatio genus draw the articulatio genus somewhat towards the patient while sitting up directly. Keep the place for 20 seconds and so rest for several seconds. Do the exercising for 6 times.

    Hip Adductor Stretch:

    Position in supine prevarication, with hip and articulatio genus flexure, and inquire the patient to kidnap the leg until the stretch felt. Keep it for 10-20 seconds, repetition it for 5-10 times.

    Hip external rotators Stretch:

    Gentle stretching of the hip in the way of median rotary motion is done with the patient in prone prevarication. Stretching is done with the hip in impersonal and knee flexed to 90 grade. The stretch force is held for 30 seconds and repeated for 3 times.


    This survey was done to happen out the effectivity of hip median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping in patients with patello femoral hurting syndrome. Twenty patients who had PFPS for continuance of atleast two months participated in this survey. They were indiscriminately allocated to one of the two intervention groups. Group I received hep median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping plan and Group II received merely Knee quadriceps musculus beef uping plan. Patients were evaluated after two months of intervention and all patients completed the survey.

    The statistical analysis performed between Group I and Group II showed the undermentioned result. VAS mark showed the average betterment of 3.4 and 4.4 of hip median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping group severally.

    The statistical analysis performed between Group I and Group II showed the undermentioned result. WOMAC mark showed the average betterment of 7.4 and 8.8 of median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping group severally.

    The independent 't ' trial was performed to analyze the consequences. For VAS the deliberate 't ' value is 5.84 which is more than the table value of 2.101 in conformity to the degree of significance of 0.05, at 18 grades of freedom. The result is considered to be important prefering the rejection of void hypothesis.

    For WOMAC the calculated't ' value is 2.606 which is more than the table value 2.101. The result is considered to be important prefering the rejection of void hypothesis

    Therefore, `` There is a important difference in decrease of hurting on utilizing hep median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping patients with PFPS.

    The consequences showed important decrease in hurting degree with both rehabilitation plan but the hip median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping showed greater diagnostic recovery than the knee quadriceps beef uping. Hence, based on the 't ' value, it is clear that there is a important difference between two beef uping programmes.

    A restriction of our survey is that merely one-sided patello fermoral hurting syndrome was taken for the survey.


    Based on the consequences of our survey, it is clear that hip median rotator and quadriceps musculus beef uping howed greater diagnostic recovery than the knee quadriceps beef uping plan entirely. This suggests that the implicit in cause of patellofemoral hurting in certain persons may non be restricted to the patellofemoral articulation.

    From this survey it is suggested that hip median rotator and quadriceps musculus strengthening is more good to patients with patellofemoral hurting syndrome.

    Since it is a clip edge survey, survey with the larger sample size and long term follow- up can be done in hereafter.

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