Human Resource Development is a process and planned activities designed, such as use of training, organization, and career development efforts by an organization to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. The development process builds up major competencies that facilitate to execute current and future job demands and enable the organization to meet its strategic objectives. Human resource management (HRM) includes many roles and Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within Human Resource Management.
Functions of the HRD are Training and development, Career development and Organizational development. HRD manager’s role towards this is incorporate HRD with organizational goals and strategies while modify HRD to corporate needs and budget, Promotes HRD as a profit enhancer and employee performance enhancement. According to the theories of learning in HRD, is important to recognize how do people learn and thus there are six main theories comes under learning styles; such as behaviorism, cognitivism, social learning theory, social constructivism, multiple intelligences and brain based learning.
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NVQs and competency movements are established in the UK government in order to enhance occupational skills of employees. These are based on national occupational standards. Standards are statements of performance describe what capable people in a particular occupation are expected to be able to do. HRD include ways and methods of identifying training and development needs and how training contribute to achieve of business objectives and the role a training and development policy for a business organization.
Evaluations on factors are significant which are important for planning a training and development. Human Resource Development is vital towards achieving company objectives and need to be aware of when training and development need to be.
Role of UK Government in training & development United Kingdom government is identify occupations for which skills and training required, recognizes the significance of training and provide incentives to attract and retain the employees.
And discover the issues in manpower planning, development and determine that government can execute to promote training. The Department of Employment and Learning-UK This department provided wide range of training and development programmes to the people around the United Kingdom. Aim of the department is to promote learning and skills, to prepare people for work and to support the economy. Objectives are to support economic, social and personal development through high quality learning, help people into employment, research and skills training and offer good employment practices.
Major activities of the department * Develop the demand and condition of learning skills, entrepreneurship, management, enterprise and leadership skills. * Maintain and increase the level of research and development, innovation and creativity in the Northern Ireland economy; * support individuals to find jobs, including self employment, and improving the relationship among employment programmes and skills development; * The development and maintenance of the framework of employment rights and responsibilities.
Skills solution service offers a single point of contact for employees, departmental trained skills adviser is available to meet employee to discuss training needs and advice to accomplish his/her necessities, help progress an application, assist with applying for financial support where appropriate.
NVQs and competency movements in the UK National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are based on skills, knowledge and understanding of an individual possess which are related to specific area of work.
Reason for the Introduction of NVQs was to address weaknesses in current systems of vocational qualifications in United Kingdom, 1986. According to the publication of the White Paper Working together, education and training, the National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up. Then NCVQ developed as a framework of NVQs which include five levels and 11 occupational areas. the government funded for NVQs are based Industry Training Organizations to develop the occupational standards , with awarding bodies developing the assessment and quality assurance arrangements to criteria set by NCVQ.
In 1994 White Paper Competitiveness, a majority of employers were either using or expected to benefit from NVQs and 40,000 managers were responsible NVQs as proof of lifetime learning. And NVQs continue up to date and the content and structure of all NVQs reviewed by April 1996. These qualifications are based on national occupational standards (NOS). NOS standards are define the abilities, knowledge and understanding required for a given occupation, and identifies outcomes that can be assessed.
NOS are cover almost every occupation, existing as units and form the basis of all National Vocational Qualifications. NVQs are diverse from traditional qualifications on what people can do and demonstrate at work place. Traditional qualifications are just part of the curriculum is learned and assessed. According to NVQ, everything that is specified in the qualification must be achieved and assessed, encourage and support the candidate to gain knowledge of how to do the remainder and evaluate what the candidate can do at the work place.
NVQs offer benefits for individuals such as Recognition of job competencies regardless of how they were acquired Certification as having met national standards for an occupational role, improved employability and transferability a flexible route to becoming qualified. Employers can have advantages an effective way of developing staff that has internationally recognized standards which offers effective and quality to customers and better guarantee of a job candidate's competency.
For the national level, NVQs are assured workers’ skills on goods and services produced and making the country more competitive and enhances the attractiveness of the labor force to foreign investors by providing certification of occupational competence.
NVQ Levels of UK BTEC Higher National Diplomas (HND) provides greater strength and specialization, Edexcel is one of the main awarding and examining organization in the UK and right through the world.
NVQs have developed for five levels of competencies, Level 01 – Entry level Foundation Skills - This level identifies capabilities of different work activities performed in a variety of perspectives. Activities are simple and especially significant supervision is needed throughout the initial steps and early months. Level 02 – skilled occupation - Identifies competence in various work activities and performed in different contexts, some of activities are complex and non – routine, some are responsibility and autonomy. Guidance is required throughout the work. Level 03 – Technician and supervisory occupations
Recognizes capabilities in a broad range of complex, which are related to technical or Professional work activities execute in wide variety of contexts. The individual should be competent of self-directed application, exhibits problem solving, designing, planning and supervisory capabilities. Level 04 – technical specialist and middle management occupations This level recognizes competencies involving the application of fundamental principles and complex techniques on wide area of perspectives. Level 04 is Equivalent to diploma, First degree, Higher National Diploma and nursing or teaching qualification.
Level 05 - chartered professional and senior management occupations Level identifies the ability to use of personal professional responsibility for development, designing, product growth, process, system or services. And this level recognizes technical and managerial competencies at the highest level and people who are occupied in the highest responsibility and made outstanding contribution to the promotion and practice of their occupation. This level is equivalent diploma, Master's degree, PhD and PGC 2. 3 Contemporary trainings initiatives in Sri Lanka
Vocational Institute of Sri Lanka
Under the provisions of the Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka Act No: 12 of 1995, Vocational Training Authority (VTA) was established in Sri Lanka which is operating under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Developments. This has 6 National Vocational Training Institutes with 22 District Vocational Training Centers and 232 Vocational training centers. VTA is implementing the skills development programs and offer skills training for rural youth according to various fields. The Exposure of training for rural youth to information technology and other areas develop their skills and entrepreneurship.
Functions of the VTA as follows,
- Conduct research & development (R&D), career
- development workshops and counselling programmes,
- Offer Vocational Training and coordinate with the other institutions
- Arrange final assessments, trade tests, final assessments and issue NVQ certificates through the Tertiary & Vocational Education(TVEC)
- Organize trainer training programs in order to manage the vocational training programmes effectively and efficiently.
Assist the youth who have undergone for trainings and reward supplementary trainings, place employments and for self employment.
Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) TVEC setup and it introduced national certification structure for the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector of Sri Lanka, which is called the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) frame work which effect from January 2005. TVEC of Sri Lanka is associated with the Skills Development Project (SDP) and funded by the Asian Development Bank.
Purpose of NVQ for Sri Lankan is in order to make globally competitive workforce Industry specific, through a standardized Technical and Vocational Education system.
National Apprentice and Industry Training Authority (NAITA)
Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority of Sri Lanka (NAITA) was established in 1971 by an Act of Parliament. The functions of the organization towards people provide distance education, Curriculum Development, Monitoring & Progress Instruction offer distance Education, Trade Testing and Certification. NAITA focus on small, medium and large scale enterprises and conduct island wide training programmes .
Assistant is gained from the United Nations Development Programme and International Labor Organization.
The Ceylon German Technical Training Institute (CGTTI)
This is incorporated as a separate training body by an act of parliament, established in 1959 and integrated to Develop modern Technology Training Centre (MTTC) at the CGTTI to meet future industry requirements. CGTTI providing training on technology related to Automobile and other technical trades and to be properly prepared to perform at the highest level of acceptance in the field maintains the standard. .
NVQs in UK and Sri Lanka Sri Lankan
Main objectives for setting NVQ are to recognize locally and internationally, create an internationally competitive workforce in Sri Lanka, match and provide Vocational training/ skills with market demand and recognize the certificates those possessed through the NVQ system. NVQ Sri Lanka is aligned with More proactive training, National goals, aware of responsiveness to Industry training needs, enhance of linkage with Industry and other stakeholders and Collaboration and rationalization among the training agencies.
The Sri Lankan NVQ framework comprised of 7 levels of upward mobility UK government is providing Education Maintenance Allowances, Undergraduate, Postgraduate courses and supporting the career and development aspirations of learners. ABC PLC can use of Edexcel NVQs. In the UK Edexcel NVQs determine for a huge variety of careers and Commitment to excellent customer service, Edexcel NVQ external verifiers also provides support, advice and guidance to Edexcel-approved centres. NVQs programs are provide an opportunity to ABC Plc enhance and overcome the problems occurred in performance.
Conduct research & development, Offer Vocational Training and coordinate with the other institutions, Assist the youth who have undergone for trainings and reward supplementary trainings , And this facilitate to ABC Plc forecast that will achieve business benefits. According to the NVQs ABC Plc reduce waste and improve its productivity therefore company can be expected their rate through business improvement techniques in NVQs. UK based NVQ programmes provides significant benefits for employer as well as employee.
Commercial Bank of Sri Lanka is known as benchmark private sector bank in Sri Lanka.
Over decades the bank has created its own identity with the clear vision, set standards and unique trend in banking sector. 3. 1 Training and Development Commercial Bank is providing training and development programmes to its employees and objectives for training are in order to better performance, economical reduce wastage and improve quality of the service, motivation and lesser staff turnover. Bank is using ADDIE model as systematic approach to training and development. Functions of T&D in the bank are, designing and developing programmes after identifying training necessities and developing a comprehensive training programme.
Train the trainer programme, Outbound training activity, Credit Programme, Junior Executive Officer Programme, Behavior Modification. And also managing and conducting training in technical and soft skills, facilitating the management of overseas training and Publication of official newsletter ‘Compulse’. The bank has identified Advantages of training & development as follows, better performance of employees usually shows a greater increase in and a higher quality of work out put than the untrained group.
And when the employees are given proper training, supervision responsibility is lesser as well as increases the self-esteem and confidence is increased. Trained personnel will be able to make better and economical use of materials and equipment and service will be quality. Staff is motivated and feels sense of recognition when they sent on training. T&D have a favorable impact on staff turnover lesser staff turnover due to better training. T&D has drawback as well such as Information and learning areas might change day by day, therefore need to do the training all over again and this may waste the time and money.
Diverse learning and training styles for those being trained can cause to be bored due to too basic or it may cause some to be frustrated because complicated. Some employees may leave the company after the training and this would be waiting of time and money of the organization. Time allocation might be not sufficient for covering all the training areas therefore some important tasks may neglected. Sometime losing control of the training content and the wrong person might do the training without knowing the mmanagement. 3. Identifying Employee Training Needs Identifying the people who need the training and requirements is vital for each and every organization to reduce wasting money and time. Commercial Bank HRD division is usually conducting a job task analysis of the employee in order to recognize the people who require trainings. It’s important to know exactly what the prospects are for the job to provide effective training. Identify the discrepancies and areas need to improve by comparing employee performance to the job expectations and by performance appraisals.
HRD Managers recognize the reason for the discrepancy those are may be due to personnel issues, work process issues, such as not knowing how to complete a specific task, or ignorance of the specific task. Work process issues can be identify by employee training, while personnel issues can be addressed by an employee review process. Schedule departmental meetings with all employees and discuss and ask them to raise and make list of suggestions that which areas they consider to be more training is needed. Evaluate legal requirements such as health and safety training.
Bank is get feedback from customers of the bank, such using interviews or surveys in areas such as customer satisfaction. And also use tests such as computer base, trials and observations. 3. 3 Importance of Employee Training for the Bank Employee training contributes to the achievement of business Objectives of the bank. Employee training increases the stability and flexibility of the bank and best available methods of performing the work can be standardized and made available to all employees. They are decrease wastages of resources and work both efficiently and effectively towards bank’s targets.
Trained employees will be able to better use of materials and equipments whilst improving the quality of the service. Such as providing IT training to the prospective employees may cause to achieve more targets and make Bank profitable and can work adapt to the changing technology. Better training enables the organization to face competition from the other banks. Trained people decreased workplace stress and increased employee effectiveness which leads to satisfaction for the customer of the bank and keep up Bank’s image around the world. 3. 4 Factors for Training and Development
According to the Commercial Bank training and development planning, one key aspect is to consider is each employee’s abilities which means should match the abilities of the employee suitable to corresponding training programme otherwise there will be a problem. For an instance bank is sending an employee to an accounting course , be competent of doing the accounting and HRD manager should ensure he/she good at accounting and numbers. Cost incurred for T & D process is very much considerable factor; management should be aware of minimize wastages and conduct the process.
Time is another aspect which is specially significant for the Bank, saving time and money will gain profits. Techniques are another factor for planning the training and development process. Bank is exercise diverse methods to address the employees. Most of the time HRD department is using presentations, role plays, speeches, and using internal and expertise. Bank is also considered about number of trainees going to be train, culture of the bank and attitude among the employees.
Importance of Evaluation
T&D process is comes under specific objectives of the bank and spent ore money and time on analyzing, designing, development and implementation process, therefore it’s important to ensure training is successful or not. The response of the trainees can be acquired through questionnaires, smile sheets. To assess the amount of learning, Bank considers using of pre tests and the post tests. Tests determine how far people have developed skills, knowledge and attitudes. There evaluating the effectiveness of the provided training. Such as observations, interviews, self diaries. Evaluation can be carried out at the end of the training and can be compared with the objectives of the training and outcomes.
Finally evaluation determines week points of training programme and in future such things can be taken care of and at the last it helps to discover whether organizational benefits has yielded.
The Way of Evaluation Needs To Be On Going
Evaluation process includes according to the ADDIE model, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. According to the analysis process identifying training needs, assess the learner’s existing capabilities, identify the audience and their characteristics are crucial to make training programmes.
Recognize the training materials will develop and make budgets and time frame for the programme. Training requirements and needs for the staff can be identified as the difference between estimated level of performance and definite level of performance. Training areas can be recognized through the performance appraisals and tests. Next step is design, according to this, design materials and plan the strategy to be used for the training programme. This may also include design of a class or demonstration, depending on how the programme will be delivered. The development phase involves development of training programme.
And gather the training programme, all associated materials necessary for a successful training programme, in this phase is testing and clear up procedures. During the process of implementation a procedure for training the facilitator and the learner is developed and delivered, conduct the trainer training programmes, installation of training modules, activating modules and establishing logins. At the end of the training it should be evaluated; questionnaires can be use in the training programme in every week or month and tests , observations, evaluation forms can be use for one day training ctivities. And it’s important to assess the training effectiveness, enhance initiatives and programmes.
Human Resource Development module reviewed and analyzed the framework influencing the role of government in training and development and the growing emphasis on continuous development and lifelong and constant development. Evaluated on NVQs, MCI and competency movement in the selected organization. Module is examined modern-day training initiatives introduced by the Sri Lankan Government and compared with the Government of UK.
According to Task two, explore the differentiated theories of learning and explained their contribution to the process of planning and designing of organizational learning events. Tasks three critically evaluated and explained current approaches of the training and development of the organization and discussed about drawbacks. Explained how training contributes to attain company objectives and the role of a training and development policy, importance of evaluating factors of planning, training and development. Discussed the importance of evaluation and how it helps to market the contribution of training and development to the organization.
The knowledge and experience enhanced throughout the Human Resource Development module and learnt how it’s important in the organization for achieve business objectives.
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