Effectiveness Audit Accessibilities for Senior Citizen Comfortability

Category: Auditing, Citizen
Last Updated: 20 Feb 2023
Pages: 6 Views: 53
Table of contents


Missing in the accessible environment will curtail aged and handicapped individuals to bask their life. People with disabilities will restrict by the physical barriers in an edifice. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze ways to better the degree of handiness in edifices for the aged and handicapped people in the built environment, particularly in infirmary and retirement centers. This paper tends to place the degree of handiness in infirmary and abodes edifices in Selangor, Malaysia. This survey comprises literature reappraisal, information aggregation, observations, and table research to research on how to accomplish friendly and comfy entree for all particularly the aged and handicapped. This survey tends to make full the spread of the old survey on the handiness of senior citizens and the disabled. The findings will let the edifice supplier upgrade bing installations in order to suit accessible built environments for the aged and handicapped people. Findings revealed that failings found are caused by hapless design, deficiency of policies and ordinances every bit good as limited guidelines. The final portion of this paper provides some recommendations in proposed guidelines in regard to the individual with disabilities needs.


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Malaysia is an underdeveloped state with a population of 29.62 million in twelvemonth 2013. Out of this 29.62 million, 1.56 million – 2.75 million are those aged and people with disabilities. Although the population of Malaysia is considered younger than others developed states, nevertheless the aging population is increasing twelvemonth to twelvemonth resulted in birthrate diminution. It is proven from the Statistics of Malaysia that the aging population is increasing by about 5 % each twelvemonth. Harmonizing to an old survey, it is estimated that the population of aging and aged will increase to 15 % of the state population in the twelvemonth 2030. Health attention and residence edifices take on particular significance as the rapid increase of aging and the disabled in our society is widely recognized today. As the aged and handicapped population grows, it is progressively of import to happen a more efficient service for this group. This survey can be a guideline for architecture, developers are every bit good as the authorities bureau in fixing the act and ordinance in a reinforced environment. This survey highlighted that accessible design must do edifices more approaching and easier to come in and utilize. In concurrence with this, an accessible design must incorporate the inside and outside of the edifice elements. In other words, an accessible design should be able supply a high degree of safe life and should let people execute their day-to-day life and activity more freely. Last, accessible design must incorporate an edifice's map, and layout every bit good as a signifier. This seminar paper will discourse about the effectiveness and process to carry on entree audits for handicapped comfy. The concluding aim of this authorship is to measure and happen another attack to supply a pleasant entree audit. In order to supply an accessible environment for the aging aged, it is of import to understand an assorted group of individuals with disabilities. Basically, individuals with disabilities can be divided into four major classes which are orthopedic, centripetal, cognitive, and multiple.

  • Orthopaedic

This class is the people who are enduring orthopedic disablements such as locomotor disablements.

  • Sensory

This group of individuals with disablements refers to people with centripetal disablements in footings of either hearing or ocular. However, this group of people normally come in both which means they will endure both.

  • Cognitive

People in this group refer to those who are enduring mental illnesses such as development or acquisition disabilities.

  • Multiple

The multiple refers to those who are enduring the combination of orthopedic, centripetal, and/or cognitive disabilities.

Elderly yttrium and person with a disability 

Elderly or senior citizens refer to those who are at an age higher than the mean life p of homo. However, there is no formal boundary age for aged and senior citizens. It varies from each state on how the state defined the boundary for aged and senior citizens. In Malaysia, elderly or senior citizens are those who are in the age of 60 old ages old and above while individuals with disabilities are those who are enduring jobs in terms of orthopedic, centripetal, and cognitive every bit good as the combination of these three. In order to protect individuals with disabilities, Malaysian authorities introduced the Persons with Disabilities Act n 2008. In the twelvemonth 2006, around two hundred 1000s of handicapped people have been registered under the Department of Social Welfare Malaysia.

Graph 1 Population of Elderly and Disabled Persons in Malaysia and Australia in 2009

Beginning: Wellness National Data 2009 - Institute of Gerontology, UPM


Graph 2 Aging Populations in Malaysia from 1970 to 2020

Beginning: Department of Statistics, Malaysia

Code of practice on access for disabled peoples: design and architectural elements

In order to protect individuals with disabilities, Malaysian authorities introduced Malaysia Standards on Disabled Persons in 2002 and a more recent and powerful one which is the Persons with Disabilities Act in 2008. Malaysia Standards on Disabled Persons in 2002 is concentrating on supplying comfort environments and installations for handicapped individuals in Malaysia. However, this is merely a criterion and non an Act of the Apostles, hence some garbage to follow the guidelines or the Standards. Therefore in 2008, Malaysian authorities introduced the Persons with Disabilities Act. Part of this act has written that those who did not obey or follow the act will be all right and gaol. There are fundamentally five elements to be considered in planning infirmary and abode edifices which are:

  1. Obstructions

Figure 1: Obstructions

Beginning: Sciverse ScienceDirect

  1. Street furniture

Figure 2: Idea dimension of the tabular array that fits wheelchair users

Beginning: Sciverse ScienceDirect

  1. Curb inclines

Figure 3: Design of Curb inclines

Beginning: Sciverse ScienceDirect

  1. Parking

Figure 5: Dedicated parking tons designed for the individual with disablements

Beginning: Sciverse ScienceDirect

Review of effectiveness audit accessibilities

  1. Hospital Sungai Long (HSL)

Figure 6: Hospital Sungai Long

Hospital Sungai Long is located at Pt 21147, Persiaran SL1, Bandar Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. This edifice consists of 6 floors with 60 beds available. This infirmary began its operation in 2012. An entree audit was performed in April 2014 for being edifice and installations. Based on the observation and findings, this infirmary is non so accessible for the aged and PWDs.


Figure 7: Parking tons of HSL

This is the lone parking batch next to the chief entryway provided by Hospital Sungai Long which consists of non more than 10 tons. In concurrence to this, there are 4 parking tons provided for physicians and specializers staff of Hospital Sungai Long. In fact, they didn’t provide any parking tons for aged and handicapped individuals that should approach the chief entryway. It will take a long distance for the aged to travel through the chief entryway. Besides that, there are no pronounced parking infinities across the site for those who are registered under individuals with disabilities ( a valid spine ). In order to work out this job, Hospital Sungai Long should supply parking tons for the aged and disabled near the chief entryway and paint in a different color from other tons.


Figure 8: Main entryway of HSL

The figure shows the chief entryway of Hospital Sungai Long. Hospital Sungai Long is utilizing manual operation door and it is hard undertaking for the aged and disabled to open the door, particularly those utilizing wheelchairs. Other than that, it may make some uncertainness for the aged and individuals with disablement such as autumn down to the floor and others. Therefore, it is recommended that Hospital Sungai Long should utilize automatic doors for easy usage by the aged and handicapped individuals although it incurred a higher cost.


Figure 9: Nerve pathway of HSL

The tract provided by Hospital Sungai Long is excessively slanted. The tract has exceeded the Malayan Standard MS 1184: 2002 which is non more than 1:12. It is hard for the aged and individuals with disabilities to acquire usage of it. Therefore, Hospital Sungai Long should supply a tract of gradient non more than 1:12.


Figure 10: Toilet in HSL

This is the figure of the lavatory provided in Hospital Sungai Long. The lavatory is well equipped with inveighing that is easy access for the aged and handicapped individuals. However, the country is excessively little. The country is a spot narrow for wheelchairs users. Besides that, there is no haptic surface installed. The installation of the haptic surface is to avoid that uncertainness such as autumn on floor and others. As a decision, Hospital Sungai Long should have better installations provided for the aged and individuals with disabilities by and large the size of the lavatory and putting in a haptic surface.


Figure 11: Lift installed in HSL

The figure shows the lift installed in Hospital Sungai Long. Overall, the lift is user-friendly. For illustration, the button is 1200mm from the floor degree and it is easily accessible for wheelchair users. However, there is no haptic warning surface installed in the forepart of the lift. Therefore, it is recommended that Hospital Sungai Long should supply a tactile warning surface for the vision impaired and a bigger lift that is able to suit more wheelchair users.

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Effectiveness Audit Accessibilities for Senior Citizen Comfortability. (2017, Jul 10). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/effectiveness-audit-accessibilities-for-senior-citizen-comfortability/

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