Assignment 2-Take Home Exam (Question 3, 5 and 6) Question 3 Discuss the difficulties in seeking to adopt a common social policy and social welfare agenda among the E. U. member states. Introduction A social policy is a public policy and practice in the areas of health care, human services, criminal justice, education, and labor. (Malcolm Wiener Centre) In European Union, it has passed a long way to seeking adopt a common social policy and social welfare agenda among the E. U. member states. Caune et al has summarized the process of social policy into three steps followed by the milestone of EU.
First stage was to create a common market and keep the national welfare policies. During the first stage E. U. did seek to establish a certain policy, such as freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment and equal pay and rights for migrant workers. The second stages was Maastricht treaty that creating Maastricht criteria as new economic policy regime and established ‘soft law management’. The thirds stage was focus onwards coordination and competition of national welfare policies. The treaty of Lisbon which is the recently moment in E.
U. social policy, it defines E. U. seeks to assess the significance of the poverty/social inclusion open method of co-ordination in terms of what it indicates about the EU’s engagement with social policy. From the historically, EU was did a lot of works to creating social policy and social welfare agenda. But E. U. still faces many difficult to making a common social policy among E. U. states. Furthermore, this essay will mainly discuss on the difficult in seeking to adopt a common social policy and social welfare agenda among the E. U. ember states which are based understand and analyzed the history and concept of E. U. social policy. Discussion From the three stages of form a social welfare system, we could found European Union has really well social welfare systems as an example for the rest of the world. It has maintained social equality among EU members which defend weaker market participants and guarantee them acceptable standards of living. However, EU is now face great challenges, such as rapid growth in EU expansion and integration, growing competition among member states for investments.
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Most of them are now becoming difficult to a adopt a further common social policy EU, such as increasing about personal expectancy, population migration process, growing income inequality and the existing social exclusion. These difficulties are mainly coming from two sources which are national and European level. If EU aims to form a common social policy, they will firstly facing a problem of different social policies pursued by member states. Rutkauskiene indicated that there is” no unanimous opinion about all existing social policy in EU. (Rutkauskiene, 2009) Every member states have their social policy depends on different typology, such as Mediterranean model and antipodean model. These different social policy models in the place which lead EU faces a huge challenge-too many different social policy model in the members will hinder the process of adopt a common social policy in EU. One of the objectives of common social policy is maintain social equality among EU member state but each member state has a different economic situation that leading to different budget on social welfare expenditure.
Hence, there will be conflict between different countries investment on the social welfare. One of the example are from the EU integration process, employee are free to move to a low cost countries and also employee from poor countries can move to a member state that has a better work condition. The enlargement or integration of European has becoming one of the difficulties in order to adopt a common social policy in EU because it has direct on the social issues, such as unemployment rate and fair work rights.
Traser describe enlargement had already, in 2004, caused public anxiety about large numbers of low-skilled and semiskilled workers from the new Member States seeking both employment and benefits in the EU-15, and displacing national workers with cheap labour. (Traser, 2005) The issues about free movement of employee is only one example about the differences of economic situation between member states but it can be a main difficulties for EU to adopt a common social policy because the members state are only stand for their own country and competing with other member states.
In the European level, EU are also did a lot of work trying to leading member states participate on the process of adopt a common social policy but it is difficult as well. Since the Maastricht Treaty a concept of ‘soft law’ management measures are used to implementation of the EU activates. This has given to the control measures that are based on voluntarism, education and the sharing of best practices. (Rutkauskiene, 2009) In other world, member’s state is voluntary participation in an exchange of information or action.
The European council collected all these soft measurement 2000 in Lisbon and give them a name of ‘Open Method of Coordination. (OMC)” (European Council Web) In the European council website explained OMC- set goals are monitored and supervised, best practices are shared and there is a scope to share. (European Council Web) But there are one important feature of the OMC is that goals and achievement are established at the EU level, while the measure and practice to achieving them are left for national governments. Many scholar are debate the disadvantage of this method.
OMC is the lack of obligation to implement any agreements, and the lack of sanctions for failing to meet any obligations (Szyszczak, 2006). In other words, EU did not give in to any suggestion about policy to national government, and national government did not need to adequately orient their active measures according to OMC goals. Moreover, each member states can present their own conclusions on the certain policy areas in their national actions plans, such as pension and health care area. Rutkauskiene has found a greatest number of faults in pension’s area caused by OMC. Rutkauskiene, 2009) Everyone is too different in their personal needs and clamming to adequate for all is not feasible. So a government policy should be set a minimum pension sum to be guaranteed and set of this agreement among EU member states. In other worlds, it is necessary that guidelines for changes in indicator evaluation are set, thereby blocking the way for different understanding about social affairs. From the different argument on OMC policy we can it was mainly established a principle of turning into coordination among EU member state but it facing difficulties turning this policy into an operational manner.
Vandenbroucke state the post challenge of Lisbon treaty is EU need an operational social policy. (Vandenbroucke, 2002) Unfortunately, according to the discussion that the current OMC policy has some disadvantaged that made difficulties for EU to adopt a common social policy. Conclusions This essay has started with an introduction milestone of adopt the EU social policy. The difficulties in adopt a common social policy among EU member states have been compounded furthermore by the fact that large number of state in EU and each of them implementing a different social programs and social policy measures.
Then we look on how European Union to dealing with this difficulties of great variety in the social policy systems. We have been chooses the current model to coordinate of social affairs in 2000 at the signing of Lisbon strategy which are Open Method of Coordination. Based on the analysed from different academic literature, “the main shortcomings of the OMC were identified as the lack of obligation and no sanctions for failing to carry out the activities set out in the agreements reached. (Rutkauskiene, 2009) Hence, the inefficiency of current policy is other main difficulties in adopt a common social policy. At the end, the process of adopt a common social will be forward in the future and the difficulties are also coming continuously at different stages. Reference Arnaudova, F. Z. L. A. A. (2011). Growth, well-being and social policy in Euroep: trade-off orsynergy. European Social Policy Centre Concuil, E. , from http://ec. europa. eu/invest-in research/coordination/coordination01_en. htm Daly, M. (2006). EU Social Policy after Lisbon.
Queen's Univeristy, Belfast. Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy. Retrieved 10 Jan 2013, from http://www. hks. harvard. edu/centers/wiener Palier, P. R. G. a. S. J. a. B. (2011). The EU and the Domestic Politics of Welfare State Reforms. England. Rutkauskiene, L. (2009). Problems in the formation of the common EU social policy: Vilnius Univeristy. Szyszczak, E. (2006). Experimental Governance: The Opend Method of Coordination. European Law Journal. Traser, J. (2005). Report on the free movement of workers in EU-25: who's afarid of EU enlargment? Brussels:European Citizen Action services. Vandenbroucke, F. (2002). The EU and Social Protection: What should the Euroepan Convention Propose. Retrieved from http://econstor. eu/bitstream/10419/44291/1/644397675. pdf Vobruba, G. Debate on the enlargement of the Euroepan Union. University of Leipzig. Question 5 the single market is the fundamental economic underpinning of the EU. Discuss why this single market is problematic in the EU with regards to the digital technology sector Introduction The Europe commission in a 1985 white paper launched the single market programme.
The main purpose of single market is ‘seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people – the EU's "four freedoms" – within the EU's 27 member states. ”(European Commission Web) It was launched as the fundamental economic integration of the EU. It creates large benefit to the enterprise and EU-citizens. The European commission and the EU’s executive arm, has target ‘energy, digital and transport sectors as priorities for depending market integration. ”(Egen) In relating to the digital technology sector, the world economic is now more deepening on the digital technology.
A 2010 study commissioned by the European Policy Centre from Copenhagen Economics showed that an integrated European Digital Single Market (DSM) would lead to an increase in GDP of at least 4%, with concrete benefits for consumers and citizens. (Economics, 2010) European commissions have already been set in motion about importance of digital single market. For example, Monti report had already highlighted the importance of developing the digital single market, which was also reflected in the digital agenda and the single market act.
However, there are still many problem existed in the EU with regards to the digital technology sector. This essay will outline of the reasons of why this single market is problematic in digital sector, which are mainly because of less enforce on inappropriate regulation in the member states and cost effectiveness and differences in provision of the infrastructure and ‘old national monopolists’. Discussion In Pablo’s report, which has summaries the European commission need to work more on to build trust and confidence in digital single market.
Echeverria has indicated that “European Commission need to stresses that the consumer rights directive marked an important step forward in terms of increasing legal certainty for consumers and businesses in online transactions, and today constitutes the main consumer protection instrument for online services. ” (Echeverria) A single market strategy will require a higher level of legal regulations in regarding to issues such as cybercrime, data privacy and spam while ensuring free movement and the possibility of transactions on the internet.
Otherwise this single market will be a problematic in digital sector because of the existence of a patchwork of different legal provisions and barely interoperable standards and practices. Also the consumer can’t access the full benefits from this strategy if this regulation is poor. European commission’s report of building the digital single market has identified more and more pollution is using the digital technology now. (Commission, 2011) Peoples are now using more internet service to making a convenience life, such as the online cross border trade.
Moreover the digital single market will allow citizens to have access throughout the EU to all forms of digital content and services. So in order to creating single market digital sector, if people are not use digital service in a safety environment then there will be a data protection problems. The other reasons of why this single market is problematic in the EU with regards to the digital technology sector, which is cost effectiveness. In Zuleeg’s report has determine that a single digital market will require large scale investments in fixed and mobile networks, with much of this investment needing to come from private operators. Zuleeg, 2012) Especially in the European finical crisis period, Europe government and private operator will need to have spent more to support this investment by developing new investment vehicles and guarantees. Michelle Egan also defines a digital single market is a long way of investment and still have many barriers now. (Egan) But the single market in digital sector will improve productivity and contribute to increasing Europe’s medium to long term competiveness. It also brings out benefit beyond the economic which it can help some societal problem, such as fragmented labor market and environment problems.
According to all of this facts, we can finding the single market can bring large benefit to citizens and social but it will need to put extra investment by government and private operator. So this single market will bring out a conflict between internal users and external stakeholders because of cost effectiveness. A study by Copenhagen economic has list out “there is a range of national and international operators, totalling close to 100 mobile operators. “(Copenhagen economic) In the Australia digital sector there are mainly one operator provide the most mobile and internet infrastructure which are Telstra.
The digital sector is fragmented in European compared with other countries. The most of the digital companies are competing on a national scale instated of across borders. None have continent-wide operations and provide difference in provisions of infrastructure. One of the example is there are still less operator can provide mobile service across borders and also with a high roaming fees. However the single market strategy in digital sector is trying to integrate these companies into one group.
This single market strategy may become problematic in the digital technology sector because a fragmented supplier industry may hamper certain developments. From the overall finding, we can operator is the main stakeholder with a large impact on the digital sector. The study by Copenhagen has further explained this fact as “a lack of market consolidation with ‘old national monopolies’ keeping their strong position in local markets due to government protection in the past. “ The operators are stress on their profit and ignore the importance of single market.
One of the major benefits of European single market is increasing competition, leading to lower prices and better welfare for consumers and society as a whole. But the operator has main power in the national market and can refuse price convergence. Conclusion At the end, the single market in digital will have large impact on European economy either in public sector or employee or consumers or producer sides. But according to the nature of digital technology sector which is fragmented industry and investment barriers so the single market has being a problematic in this industry.
Reference Completing the internal market White paper from European Commission to European Council (1985). Brussels. Commission, E. (2011). Building the digital single market-cross border demand for content services. Echeverria, P. A. On completing the digital single market Economics, C. (2010). The conomic impact of a european digital single market. Egen, M. Twenty years after the completion of the EU's single market programme, member states have still not eliminate all barriers to trade. London: The london school of economic and politcal science. Zuleeg, F. (2012).
A digital single market by 2015. eSharp. European Mobile Indsutry Obeservatory. (2011) Monti, M. (2010). A new strategy for the single market. “The Single Market". Europa web portal. http://ec. europa. eu/internal_market/index_en. htm. Retrieved 03 January 2012. Question 6 what are the problems to be encountered in forming a European sense of identity among the citizenry of the EU? Introduction A sense of a national identity is “the person's identity and sense of belonging to one state or to one nation, a feeling one shares with a group of people, regardless of one's citizenship status. (Smith, 1993) Usually, these are nation-states but it also can implied an entity group of European Union. McCormick writes sense of European identity as “a related term of Europeanism refers to the assertion that the people of Europe have a distinctive set of political, economic and social norms and values that are slowly diminishing and replacing existing national or state-based norms and values. ”(McCormick, 2010) Johan Borneman indicates the practices of Europeanization in term of languages, money, tourism and sex and sport. Borneman 1997) European Union are getting practice on this through the creation of the European single market, the expanded the European Union from twelve members in 1985 to twenty-seven members in 2007 and link the legislative and policy frameworks of EU with European identity. As we explained before EU has a long history of this integration process but there are still many problems encountered in forming a European sense of identity among the citizenry of the EU. There are especially in some countries are having this problems such as British.
Moreover, this essay will discuss on the main problems that are in forming a European sense of identity among the citizenry of the EU. It also will consider some examples in English. Discussion Medrano has summarized the main problems into three section which are “. 1) conflated behaviour in referenda on reform treaties of the European Union, support for European integration, and identification with Europe, 2) conflated different dimensions of European identity, and 3) failed to unpack the various meanings that citizens attach to the idea of identification with Europe” (Medrano, 2010)
In the detail, the first problems are mainly concerned on the public debate on European identity. Many people see no opportunity to influence supranational decisions effectively because there are lacks of intermediary actor primary covering European issues. In the public, the media or journalists are both have lack of supporting on EU news. Vreese said “It is difficult to ‘sell’ an EU story. ” (Vreese, 2004) Medrano has asked many journalists do you agree you play an important role in ‘crating a European identify’. (Medrano, 2010) The most of them unanimously agreed that the answer should be ‘NO’.
Some journalists believe their role is to create engagement and interest and not to influence identity. One of the examples is in British, the public opinion is divided and the country is becoming the most of skeptic members in EU with regards to EU policy of common currency and the enlargement. There is other problem influencing public opinion about Europe, such as difference in social-demographic characteristics. Most of researcher has find men being more supportive of Euro-pan integration and higher levels of education are associated with being more positive towards the EU.
The second problems listed by Medrano, can be described as there are having many dimensions of European identity either by national or citizen. If there are too many dimensions of European identity that will results a lack of precision use in the use of the sense of European identity. The official dimensions of European identity is a precondition for a democratically legitimise European Union with feeling of belonging together of the people living in the member states, including the awareness and the support of common values, achievements and aims.
But in related to a real case the European identity is far lagging behind national identity. Fukuyama has given one example of Frances created a strong national identity by built around the French languages. (Fukuyama, 2012) In order to compared within the EU’s dimension, EU are more stress on political and policy identity but the nation’s dimensions are more focus on culture and social level. EU has 27 members within different culture and religion. These countries have already built on different level of national identity.
EU is now trying to integrate this national identity into one common identity which is European identity. So EU needs to conflate different dimension of European identity. The third problems is failed to consider the citizen’s ideal about European identity. The EU defines concept of European identity are most physically based, such as free movement of goods and service. But the officials should to promote a sense of belonging to Europe citizens emotionally. Medrano stated there are lacks of identification with Europe among citizens are mostly interested in the emotional dimension of identification. (Medrano,2010)
Besides of Medrano’s measured three problems, there are still many other problems in order to create a sense of European identity. One of these problems are EU has less use any knowledge or instruments of identity policy to deliver the sense of European identity, such as education. Walkenhorst writes “without a sense of commitment and knowledge of citizenship rights the European peoples cannot establish a democratic identity in the sense of supporting the EU as a legitimate political system”. (Walkenhorst, 2004) EU also will not being able to demonstrate its benefits for the European citizen without using an instrument of identity policy.
For instance, provide more education or program on spread the sense of European identity will also help to avoid the problems of different religions. EU has different religions identity, such as Christian and Muslim. The concept of European identity need to consider the ideal of multiculturalism and democracy. Conclusions This essay draws an analysis of the problems encountered in forming a sense of European identity which are based on an understanding what is a sense of European identity and how could generate a sense of identity.
Since the firstly forming a European Union, EU are trying to creating a sense of European identity. A sense of national or regional identity is an emotionally feeling belongs to a group. EU did a lot of work that letting people are physically feeling of European citizen, such as free movement of people and goods. One of the examples, are Eurostar given people are more mobility in traveling around European. However, EU is now facing problems on ignored the citizen’s emotionally feeling of European identity and conflicts of different dimension about European concept of identity.
Each member state and citizens has different dimension about European identity. The best way to solve this problem is using accurate instrument to spread the ideal of European identity, such as education and media. But the fact is there is lack of use media and education that results a problems in forming a sense of European identity. Reference Adrian Favell, E. R. , Theresa Kuhn, Janne Solgaard Jensen and Juliane Klein. (2011). The Europeanisation of Everyday Life: Cross-Border practices and Transantional Identitifcations Among the Eu and Third-Country Citizens. Foweler, J. B. a. N. (1997).
Europeanization. Annual Review. Retrieved from http://www. jstor. org/stable/2952532 . Fukuyama, F. (2012). European Identities Retrieved from http://blogs. the-american-interest. com/fukuyama/2012/01/10/european-identities-part-i/ Margaret R, A. (2008). Perceptions of European Identity among EU Citizens: An Empirical Study. McCormick, J. (2010). Europeanism: Oxford University Press. Medrano, J. D. (2010). Unpackiing European Identity: CAIRN, INFO. Smith, A. D. (1993). National identity: Univeristy of Nevada Press. Versteegh, M. L. C. (2010). European Citizenship as a New Concept for Euroepan Identity.
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