Anthropology Exam Review
The scientific study of humans, Including their origins, behavior and physical, cultural and social development.Cultural Anthropology: Explore how culture has shaped people In the past and present day.Physical Anthropology: Explore where human species came from, how our bodies developed In the present form, and what makes us unique.
Psychology: The scientific study of the human mind, mental states, and human behavior.
Sociology: The scientific study of human social behavior, including individuals, groups, and societies. Inquiry Model: A scientific model used to organize thoughts, observations and relevant scientific information leading us to new questions and ideas. Identify the problem or question Develop a hypothesis Gather data Analyze the data Draw conclusion Archaeology: Excavate physical remains of past cultures to understand and reconstruct them.
Some study cultures with no written record (prehistory) or study sites that have a recorded history to supplement their understanding of the culture. Linguistic Anthropology: Study human languages and how language affects and expresses culture. Ethnology: The study of the origins and cultures of deferent races and peoples. They are concerned with marriage customs, kinship patterns, political and economic systems, religion, art, music and technology. Most often study a culture through participant observation. Humans vs..
Primates Similarities Differences The bond between mother and infant is important for survival Humans are the only primates adapted to Bipedal Have a very long infant dependency period (Time until an individual can reproduce) Humans have the longest infant dependency period of any other mammal Have eminence hierarchies and aggression among the males for access to food and females Humans are the only primates with a symbolic, spoken language and the physical ability of speech Groom or clean one another Humans are the only primates who live In groups and mate In pairs Communicate through facial expressions, touch, visualization, and body language Humans develop grasping feet, forward facing eyes and relatively large brains Pharmacology: Study the anatomy and behaviors of living primates. Paleontology: The study of human ancestors based on evidence from distant evolutionary past. Human Variation: Genetic differences between people and populations to understand the differences between people. They try to find out how and why human beings are different and try to understand these differences from an evolutionary perspective. Forensic Anthropology: Help legal agencies to identify human remains after mass disasters, wars, homicides, suicides, or accidental deaths. They are usually paleontologists or archaeologists who have spent years studying human bones and fossils.
Culture: All of the learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals of a particular society or population. Culture is Learned: a We learn most thoughts, behaviors and values we continue to learn for our life Culture is Shared: a If a group or society thinks or acts in particular ways, those become part of culture b If a small group shares cultural value, they may belong to a SUBCULTURE: Share characteristics of the overall culture, but also have important distinctive ideas and behaviors Culture Defines Nature: a Culture can limit, fulfill, expand or in other ways influence our biological needs and inherited tendencies Culture Shapes how we perceive and Understand the World: Ex.
Intuit have numerous ways to describe snow because it was important to their survival Culture has Patterns: a Cultures aren’t random collections of belief and behavior; if one aspect changes, so do others b Underlying cultures are certain core values and world views that are usually taken for granted by members of the culture c We are often unaware of the values we hold because they seem self-evident Unstructured Interview: No questions are pre-established and the researcher has little control over a respondent’s answers. Pros: Allow researcher to test out his or her initial ideas and can lead to a greater understanding of the topic Cons: May be deception between interviewer and interviewee Semi-structured Interview: Go with an outline of types of information wanted but not a strict list of questions. Pros: Good if you have one chance to meet the person Cons: It can be easy to stray away from the topic you need info on Structured Interview: Use a set list of questions that don’t change. Should be used when researcher is very clear on the topic and other information is easily available.
Pros: Can be used efficiently by non-experts Does not require relationship Can produce consistent data Cons: Cannot adapt to change and are closed questions May obtain limited answers Participant Observation: Observes a group and participates as a member. Kinship Systems Bilinear: A system of family descent where blood links and rights of inheritance through both male and female ancestors are of equal importance. Matrilineal: Societies in which descent is traced through mothers rather than through fathers. Patrimonial: A system in which family descent is reckoned through the blood links of males. Types of Marriage Monogamy: A relationship where an individual has one partner. Pros
Only legal type of marriage in Canada Loyalty to each other Prevents Sexually Transmitted Infections Cons Higher divorce rate Change partners over a lifetime High divorce and remarriage rate Polygamy: A form of marriage that involves multiple partners. Pros Symbol of wealth and acquiring wealth Man is cared for by multiple people Enjoy company of copies Emotionally and financially difficult Unequal love Confusion of family Bridgewater (A cultural system where the groom must pay a father in order to marry his daughter Polyandry: A form of marriage with one wife and multiple husbands pros Lots of space Sexual rights and economic responsibilities Can respond to different environmental and social constraints Cons Increased workload Must look after all husbands Love Marriage: A person chooses who they want to marry.
Choose your life partner Personal desires are important 50% percent divorce rate in USA, and 33% in Canada Families may not be close since one family may not like the other Arranged Marriage: Someone else chooses the spouse for the person. Pros Only 5-7% divorce rate Close family ties, extended family households and parental support in maintaining the marriage Cons No real feelings of love for other person Couple’s personal desires aren’t as important Religion: Cultural beliefs of the supernatural that people use to cope with problems of existence.Religious questions help people to understand ultimate questions such as: Why are we here? What is death? Why does evil happen to some and not others?
Religion satisfies psychological needs common to all people in the faces of uncertainty Religion provides community and affirms a person’s place in society, making its believers feel part of a community and giving them confidence Multiculturalism: An ideology that states that all cultures are of equal value and would be promoted equally within the same nation. Acculturation: The meeting of two or more cultural groups and the resulting cultural changes to each group. Assimilation: Individuals want to have daily interaction with other cultural groups and leave behind their own cultural heritage. Schools of Psychology Behaviorism: Behavioral conditioning in the forms of classical and operant conditioning.
Psychoanalysis: ID: Expresses sexual and aggressive instincts; follows the pleasure principle EGO: Mediates between desires of the old and the demands of the Superego; follows the laity principle SUPEREGO: Represents conscience and the rules of society; the moral centre of the mind Humanism: Hierarchy of Needs – Describes the theory of motivation, explaining that basic needs must be fulfilled before higher-order needs become important. Safety Needs Belongingness and love Needs Esteem Needs Self-Actualization Cognitive: The mental process in the brain associated with thinking, knowing and remembering. Classical Conditioning: Created by Ivan Pavlov A kind of learning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CSS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) EX.
Dog drooling test He knew he could get an unconditioned response (drooling) when he presented the unconditioned stimulus (food) To test his theory, Pavlov took a neutral stimulus (bell) and began to ring it at the same time that the dog received its food After a while, the dog began to associate the sound of the bell with receiving food, a conditioned stimulus, since it produced a conditioned response Operant Conditioning: Created by B. F. Skinner A type of learning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by its antecedents and consequences EX. Rat and pigeon experiment Skinner developed a box that had a bar on one wall When pressed, a food pellet fell into the cage Inside the box, a rat was rewarded with food each time it pressed the bar Within a short time, the rat was furiously peddling away hoarding its pellets in the cage Erik Erikson believed that humans continue to develop over their lifetime rather than just in their childhood.
He also believed that individual growth depends on society, not Just personal experiences. Anxiety Disorder: Affects a person’s behavior, thoughts, emotions, and physical health. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) – Worrying, nervousness, tension Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (COD) – Obsessions and compulsions Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PUTS) – After a person is exposed a traumatic event Depression: Mood disorder involving a pervasive, unhappy, or irritable mood. It is much more severe than Just unhappiness, and may interfere with a person’s life if not treated. Bi-Polar Disorder: A mental illness characterized by periods of elevated mood and periods of depression.
Behavioral Change Model Pre-contemplation: Not thinking about or intending to change a problem Contemplation: Aware of a desire to change a particular behavior Preparation: The action is intended in the near future, typically measured as within the next thirty days Action: Marks the beginning of the actual change occurring Maintenance: Maintaining this new behavior Attribution Theory: We link the behavior of others to their disposition or to an external situation. As a result, your interpretation of a person can be different than a friend’s view. We are more likely to attribute a person’s behavior to their internal disposition rather than a situation.
Fundamental Attribution Theory: The tendency to overestimate the impact of arsenal disposition and underestimate the impact of social influences when analyzing the behaviors of others. Social thinking affects behavior by affecting sensation and perception. (Sensation – Activates sense receptors) (Perception – Select, organize and interpret data). Attitude affects behavior Attitudes are infectious and can affect the people that are near the person, which in turn can influence their behavior. Motivation directs behavior towards specific goals. Mental health affects behavior by creating irregular social norms. Intrinsic Motivation: Desire to perform a task for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation: Desire to perform a task due to external factors, such as reward, threat or punishment. Attitude and Behavior Consistency Theory: Assume that individuals need consistency between attitude and behavior. Change attitude by creating inconsistency in knowledge and behavior. Learning Theories: Study the influence of stimuli on other stimuli to create an emotional response. Change attitude by using classical and operant conditioning techniques. Social Judgment Theories: Study how prior attitudes change the perspectives of persuasive messages that influence their persuasion. Changed attitude by taking fair and unbiased messages. Functional Theories: Questions proposed of attitudes.
Change attitude by creating inconsistency between an attitude and a function. Structural Functionalism: Takes the view that various segments of society serve a purpose for society as a whole; they believe that social problems are temporary and institutions will improve over time. Sociologist – Emilie Druthers Conflict Theory: Expresses the view that power, not function, holds a society together. Society is seen as groups of people acting together in competition and in this, may erupt to bring about change. Sociologist – Karl Marx Symbolic Interactions: Focuses on how individuals learn about their culture – how they subjectively interpret, then act upon their social world.
Sociologist – Max Weber Feminist Sociology: Focuses on women and gender equality in society. They emphasize a better understanding of the social roles of men and women in different cultures. Sociologist – Dorothy Smith Primary and Secondary Agents of Colonization Family: The family is responsible for meeting the individual’s basic needs and providing beliefs needed to survive in this world. It is within the family structure that you are first introduced to right and wrong, proper and improper, and appropriate and inappropriate. The family shapes behavior throughout life, and is the first agent a person is introduced to. A family is any combination of two or more people who are bound together over time.
Types of Families Nuclear Family: A family that consists of spouses and their dependent children Extended: A family system in which several generations live together in one household Lone-parent: A family that consists of one family living with one or more pendent children Blended Family: A family in which divorced partners with children from a previous union marry Same-Sex Family: A family that consists of two individuals of the same gender, with to without kids School/Work: Lasts 12-20 years of an individual’s life. School socializes children in knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to help them function in society. Work typically lasts until the age of 65 or until the person can retire. School and work teach attitudes, and habits, such as organization, responsibility, promptness, cooperation, and respect for authority.
Peer Groups: At age 2-3, children come into contact with their peer groups which brings along with it new personality types, behaviors and attitudes. Adolescent peer groups tend to influence colonization to a greater degree due to the rapid change in society. Helps to understand relationships and situations like friendliness, compromising, dealing with disappointment, and coping with rejection. Culture and Religion: Each culture has a different perception of gender roles. Society generally determines appropriate roles for a man or woman. Religion is an aspect of ultra and also plays a socializing role in a person’s life. It is usually introduced first Media: Media influences what we say, how we say it, what we think etc.
Positive Influences: Informing us of new policies/laws, promoting healthy eating and exercise, encouraging family values Negative Influences: Focusing on negative aspects, promotes negative behaviors Social Identity: The way you define yourself to the world and to yourself. Life Stages Not everyone passes through them, nor do they have to occur in the same order Stereotype: An exaggerated view or Judgment made about a group or class of people. Discrimination: The act of treating groups of individuals unfairly based on their race, gender, or other common characteristics. Prejudice: An individual judgment, about or active hostility towards another social group.
Formation of Discrimination Learned Theory Not innate – Learned through colonization Children often carry prejudicial views until adolescence Can learn through media Competition Theory The key reason for discrimination is economic competition Whenever an economic crisis occurs, people assume immigrants are responsible Creates competition between unemployed and immigrants Frustration-Aggression Theory Shortcomings an individual experiences financially provides reason to resent a group that appear to have greater wealth Frustration can be displaced and turned into culture Can lead to escape goats Ignorance Theory Lack of personal and social experience can cause people to make incorrect assumptions about someone If we refuse to learn, we may see actions as strange or odd Norms: Expectations about how people should behave. Sanctions: Rules within a group that encourage or discourage certain kinds or behavior.
Rioting: Takes place because of civil disorder/social grievance. Panic: An irrational response by individuals or a group that is caused by a dangerous event. Abnormal Colonization Child Abuse Physical Abuse: Assault or inflicting personal harm inappropriately Neglect: The failure to provide physical or emotional necessities of life. Emotional Abuse: Repeatedly criticizing or subjecting a child to an unhappy or disturbing environment. Feral: Children deserted at a young age and were raised by animals. Ex. Joana Malay (Discovered at the age of 8 in her backyard, raised by dogs) Isolate: Children raised in near isolation within human households.