"Feminism is the radical notion that women are human beings" -women fighting male power structure Women, you may be feminist if you: -had lots of choices after high school -had the option of college/grad school -have a career/job and family -plan to be a doctor, lawyer, engineer (professional) -support fair work salary for any work -workplace is free of sexual discrimination -participate in women's sports -go to a woman doctor -vote in any political race -run for any political office intend to use daycare -can get a divorce (custody) -"You have the choose of wearing jeans and tennis shoes instead of a girdle and heels" "man is not the enemy here but the fellow victim" -Betty Friedan -If civil rights are denied by somebody, it affects everybody Men, you may be feminist if you: -are in college or have had other opportunities because of mom's good job to contribute to income -mom had support services to help raise you/siblings -have a content, stay at home mom -have ever been asked out by a girl (or paid).
Understand and Appreciate Art -How is it put together? What do I personally bring? Where did it come from? Could not buy/sell property could not enter into contracts without husband's consent actually seen as property Social no recourse to spousal abuse, no divorce without husband's consent, few custody rights over kids could not go out in public alone. Educational denied any education, denied education in math, language most could not go to college could not enter the professions (law, engineering), some women attended "female seminars" or "academies" to become teachers; once they were married, however, they were fired. Political could not serve on a jury could not testify in a case (too emotional, not trustworthy), could not vote (not smart, too delicate, "vote like a husband") Lizzy Borden: acquitted by a jury of 12 men: "not guilty" of killing her two parents "Lizzie Borden took an ax And gave her mother forty whacks.
When she saw what she had done She gave her father forty-one. "The Birth of the Women's Movement -Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention with their husbands in London; they were denied seats because they were women. The women reunited at a tea party at the and decided on a convention -Stanton mostly wrote the "The Declaration of Rights and Sentiments". We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal". List of Grievances -never exercised the right to vote he made her morally, an irresponsible being -in the eye of the law, married women were "dead" -denied the right to education denied divorce rights demeaned to second-class citizens.
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Women's Rights. Ratification of their Declaration. Fight over the 11th amendment (suffrage).
Frederick Douglass (great orator, ex-slave, equivalent to Malcolm X) fought for women's rights at the convention: the compared value of women as lesser than animals in society Video Clip Notes: Not for Ourselves Alone- Seneca Falls narrations from female historians reflecting -a procession of women to Seneca Falls -July 19, only women attended; July 20, open to all (over 300 men and women) -Lucretia's husband was asked to lead (the women were nervous because they never spoke in public) -men decried women of their rights -68 men and women signed their Declaration -11 new conditions, only 10 were passed; still no right to vote -"The right to vote is ours. Have it we must use it we will" -Stanton -"Without the vote, women would be unable to change the laws that hurt them".
Last public words: "Failure is impossible".One of four women and 2 modern women to be on money -Carrie Chapman Catt -Alice Paul "Iron Jawed Angels" (film) -women jailed for fighting for suffrage. Declaration Stanton and Anthony did not get to vote because they died One Step Forward, Two Steps Back -Some improvement -loss of "steam" - Great Depression. "We Can Do It! " World War II: The 1940s -women take over "masculine jobs" to help win the war -"if you've used an electric mixer in your kitchen, you can learn to run a drill press" -"Rosie the Riveter" represented a lot of women; iconic poster by J. Howard Miller -6 million women became Rosie's -"Rosie the Riveter" by the Four Vagabonds (song) Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jane Baker) was a Rosie working with planes when a photographer saw her and took army photos -Fannie Lou Hamer: sharecropper who became a significant voting rights and civil rights activist Rush to the Altar mid-late 1940s -soldiers come home, women go home, men take back the jobs Marriage rate: 1948- 16. 4%; 2008- 7. 1% Traditional Housewives (Suburbs) the 1950s -normalcy after the war -traditional families/sex roles -PhT (Putting Husband Through), and Mrs. degrees (women going to college to find a husband) -the ideal of the housewife "the feminine mystique" Video Clip Notes: "Why Study Home Economics" (University of Kansas) -"I'm going to need to know" -".. homemaker the rest of my life" -we're going to get married, no choice -Counselor: "Home Ec training teaches you how to be a better homemaker" Ultimate Goal: Marriage and Family -regardless of education -TV Show "Leave it to Beaver" portrayed traditional family roles -TV was new in the 50s: what messages were TV shows sending to men and women? -"Drop the Mop" song ("Equal jobs and educational opportunities"). The Winds of Discontent (the late 50s, early 60s) legal job discrimination -1/3 women working outside of the home (low paying jobs, laid off first, "glass ceiling") -After WWII, new technology -Airline jobs- as soon as a stewardess got married, she was fired; wasn't the same for pilots (only could be male) -teaching was considered the "best job" (others were secretaries, but no professions) -Lorena Weeks: Used 1964 legislation to fight the legal discrimination at work *operated switchboards under bad hours and low pay Dissatisfied Housewives -Betty Friedan "voice of dissatisfied housewives" -Wrote, "The Feminine Mystique" (1953).
Video Clip Notes -K. Foley: working wife/mother, frozen opportunities and lack of jobs -Dust Roady: earned a college degree in 1950, wanted to be a pilot, denied the position and only offered to be a stewardess Video Clip Notes: Eastern Airlines commercial -discriminatory and demeaning towards female (stewardesses) -they were fired at age 32, versus male pilots being fired at age 60 -Friedan challenged the identity of women in her book; ".. cannot find herself in a house" -not all women bought her message, however -Jacqui Cueball "it wasn't us, it was a society"
The President's Commission on the Status of Women 1961 -JFK's presidency: women were paid $0. 59 for every $1 man were paid -2008: women were paid $0. 77 for every $1 men were paid -low, unequal pay -poor job opportunities -quotas in professional schools (only a certain number of women) -lack of social services -TV show "All in the Family" - wage disparity (Archie was the husband) -60s: some nuns got rid of their habits (changes in the church) "The personal is political" -social restrictions *"men only" and "women only" public places women were isolated in their own homes- they couldn't meet up and talk -this issue lead to "Consciousness Raising Groups," where women could talk about anything in privacy without men or children -battered women's shelters -contraceptive rights, including abortion (Roe V. Wade) -rape laws -Before Second Wave Feminism, issues such as abusive relationships were "personal problems," not "society's problem" -However, feminists argued that society needs to be involved with solving these problems Video Clip Notes -Women try to enter men's bar "women are people," "start all over" (black and whites, men and women)
"Second-Class Citizens" -60s: in some states, women needed husbands to cosign to get a credit card -70s: women would not be interrupted during consciousness-raising group meetings -women's strike "don't iron while the strike is hot" The Mid 60s-70s -Civil Rights Act 1964 banned discrimination (race and gender) -National Organization for Women (NOW) 1966, created by Betty Friedan; still one of the largest poetical organizations for women's rights today, aimed at men too (better for them) *not all feminists of 60s agreed with her (like MLK vs Malcolm X). LBJ signs Civil Rights Act -Lorena Weeks cited the Civil Rights Act to fight *it took 5 years and an appeal to the Supreme Court, but she got the job she wanted -Women in white robes praying "Mother, Daughter, Holy Granddaughter" -to feminists: Miss America Pageant was the epitome of "ideal woman" -female protestors threw bras, girdles, makeup, and heels in the trash -Shirley Chisholm: equal pay and equal opportunities in the stock market: feminism
Women's Liberation: "I Am Woman, Hear Me Roar" -Helen Reddy -Politics -Legal System -Wall Street -Media -Medicine -Arts -Sports -Pop Culture -ALL AREAS "The Feminine Mystique," or Betty. Mother, housewife, writer, feminist leader -"The Feminist Mystique" -Worked as a journalist in the 50s, but got fired when she got pregnant; she then did free-lance magazine work from home How did the Feminist Mystique get started? -"McCall's" magazine "women's" magazine that catered to women's issues; asked Friedan to write a piece *Friedan interviewed women she graduated with and asked them "What has been your experience as a woman? " -The initial title of the article was to be "The Togetherness Woman" (the happy, ideal, traditional woman) -Smith College's Class of 1942 15th reunion What did McCall's expect to find? -ideal 50s women -high levels of satisfaction and happiness -LIFE Magazine, December 1956: "ideal American woman…white, middle-class, frivolous, spoiled, beautiful, boy crazy. "
Ideal 50s Woman
- Delicate, Not intellectual
- Focused Video Clip Notes
Christian Dior set standards for fashion trends during wartime -Hourglass figure, girdles and slim shapes with a big bust -"feminine, sexy" -Contestants had to peel potatoes and make a bed in Miss America Pageant Barbie -invented in 1959 -commercial doll (doll $3, clothes $1-5) -Mattel International Video Clip Notes: Xerox commercial -first machine in 1959 -a take-off on Marilyn Monroe, ditzy secretary -overall message: "So easy a woman can do it" A Housewife's Day -PTA meetings Shopping -Seeing her friends -In her kitchen What did Friedan's survey actually find? -discontent, unhappy -unexplained fatigue and physical illness -prescription drug use skyrocketed *3 years: 1. 2 million pounds of Miltown (tranquilizer) had been taken by women (mid-50s) -lack of interest in the world or hope for the future -went beyond her college peers She found that for women…. -College graduate rates: 60% drop out (PhT) -Marriage rates up, age down (average 20yrs and dropping in late 50s).
Skyrocketing birthrate -Labor Market: 1/3 working; nonprofessional "jobs" Politics: Congress- more in the 40s than in the 50s What did Friedan conclude? Women suffer from "the problem that has no name". The housewife's "blight" (doctors used these terms, even). Psychological problem: lack of identity -Trapped in a dilemma *Homemaker lifestyle that was the envy of many but not fulfilling, especially to the educated woman -McCall's denied Friedan's magazine Article (editors were men) What is the Feminine Mystique? -The post-WWII ideology that a woman can and should only be fulfilled as a housewife and mother -Resistance: sickness, abnormality Intentionally pervasive throughout society -Fight back against Feminine Mystique is the Women's Lib Movement What did Friedan do? "Scream of pain". Changed the course of history -Became a pioneer of the Second Wave -Remember Susan B. Anthony was a pioneer of the First Wave Possible "Why? " Theories -nation's need to return to pre-war "normalcy"? -"Artificial Buoyancy" idea that in society, there are people who feel they want to be on top, meaning some have to sink to the bottom (men vs. omen) -the need for a consumer class with time and desire to shop.
The Freudian "Why" Theory -Sigmund Freud: Father of psychology and psychiatry. Anatomy is destiny. Women are anatomically built to be mothers. "Normal female traits are receptivity and passivity…a willingness to accept dependence. "Freud is a "male chauvinist pig". Shulamith Firestone coined this phrase Friedan's Conclusion: All the theories are true -The Feminine Mystique is pervasive in society and it is the result of an intentional conspiracy by the male-dominated society to keep things male-dominated The Stepford Wives Sci-fi book by Ira Levin: men find a way to turn their wives into robots (ideal 50s woman) -Movies: 1975- thriller; 2004- spoof (credits show many different shots to send his message).
American Film Institute: Best movie of all time graduated from William College then wrote it -Ann Bancroft (who inspired Professor Loughran to act very young) played "Mrs. Robinson," an unhappy housewife -Dustin Hoffman plays "Benjamin," a discontent college graduate; actor was originally supposed to be tall and attractive, like Robert Redford -Katharine Ross Music: Simon and Garfunkel wrote the theme song, which was originally supposed to be "Mrs. Roosevelt" -Director: Mike Nichols Video Clip Notes "the Graduate" -Scene begins after Ben's graduation party -Mrs. Robinson resorts to alcohol and music -" Mrs. Robinson you're trying to seduce me" Diary of a Mad Housewife (1970) -Comedy of manners: making fun of a certain segment of society -exploring dangers of Feminine Mystique in a humorous way -Making fun of upper, affluent lifestyles of these people.
Early Days of TV -1939 World Fair -Rapid expansion. Post-WWII leisure. Better technology Better programming -Content news, drama, variety shows, live broadcast advertising 1955: Fort Wayne, Indiana -Social Lives -Education -Business -Church TV and Politics -JFK AKA "TV President" -TV was live in the 60s death of Lee Harvey Oswald was aired 1950s/60s TV: A Man's World "Women's lives are so dull… they don't need TV shows" "women can make decisions in comedies". Norman Felton, MGM Executive Producer -Madelyn Martin, writer for "Lucy" shows Television's Portrayal of Women (according to Friedan) -boring -jealous -inept -foolish -dependent -weak -silly -spoiled -materialistic "I Married Joan" (1954 Daytime TV Show). Joan Davis (like Lucille Ball).
"Mrs. Bradley Stevens" (married to judge_ Marlo Thomas: Arts Hero -Personal Life. Born in 1937. Daughter of Danny Thomas (comedy "Danny Thomas Show") grew up privileged, wife/stepmother Phil Donaghue (precursor to Oprah, similar talk show) didn't want to get married *saw the mistreatment of women firsthand in the acting industry, wanted to be an actress, and was concerned about making it on her own Acting -TV Series: That Girl, among others -Film -Theater Writing -Free to Be…You and Me (healthier children's book), books, CDs, and TV specials.
Other -Producer -Speaker -Awards: Lucy Award (outstanding women in TV), Emmy, Golden Globe, Grammy same as Sidney Poiter: not about winning, but making a difference That Girl -September 1966 -First show about a single woman -Force behind the show, scripts, clothes -Production aspects -end of the season, she had a boyfriend on the show, the producer wanted them to marry but she said "Hell no! " Making a Difference -Advocate for women's rights. The Ms. Foundation for Women -St. Jude's Children's (Cancer). Research Hospital. Her dad founded this in 1960 Janis wanted what med had- everything Don't compromise yourself. You're all you've got. " Janis Joplin: first female rockstar -wanted to be equal with men -she wanted a personal life -From Port Arthur, TX; always wrote letters and kept in touch with her family -Dated musician Country Joe McDonald -Wanted a career, broke with the band "Big Brother", and went successfully solo. Died of a heroin overdose -Made it okay for a woman to create her own kind of beauty -made it possible for women to have any type of career -1995: inducted into Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame -Helped women reach for the starts -inspired female rockstars.
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