If the research hypothesis is nondirectional it will not state the expected direction within the relationship of the variables but that a relationship exists. The statistical hypothesis or null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables and failure to reject the null hypothesis will support the research hypothesis. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2006) Define the following: independent variable, dependent variable (note that the dependent variable is of primary interest to the researcher).
The independent variable is manipulated in experimental research studies and assumed to occur naturally in nonexperimental studies to measure or observe the effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is not changed or manipulated and is the variable that is studied by changes in the independent variable. The dependent variable is what the researcher is interested in explaining, understanding, or predicting. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2006)
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Identify the independent and dependent variable in the following statement: Women who attend childbirth classes will be less likely to use pain medication than women who do not attend childbirth classes. The dependent variable is pain medicine, which women would take less of if independent variable, childbirth classes, is present. In your own words, explain the interrelationships between a research question, literature review, theoretical framework, and hypothesis.
The research question must be measurable, show relationship between variables ith a stated population, which will guide the literature review. The literature review is focused on research questions, or guided by the research questions, along with the theoretical framework, which also guides the research in what will be measured or compared in the research question, together they all form the hypothesis. The research hypothesis will be guided by the literature review, research question, and theoretical framework to give an answer to the research question that can be validated.
Know that the main purpose of literature review is to gain insight and understanding of research that has been done related to a particular area of topic of interest. Define and differentiate between primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are from the person who conducted studies, developed the theory, or prepared the discussion on a concept or topic. They are essential in literature review; most are published but some may not be. Secondary sources or used sometimes but should be limited in literature review. They are from someone other than the original author.
The work is usually a critique or review of the work and may or may not be published. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2006) What does it mean if a journal is refereed or peer-reviewed? A refereed journal has external and internal reviewers or editors who are experts in various fields to study or judge the article or manuscript before publication which will enhance its credibility. A peer-reviewed article or manuscript is evaluated by fellow specialists of research that has been done to assess its correctness for publication or further development.
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