Organizations undertake a diagnosis of their operation for purposes of checking the effectiveness and efficiency of their work processes. It is because they owe it to their stakeholders, stockholders and other interest groups to assure that their needs and expectations are met. When an organization is regularly checked and diagnosed, problems can be pinpointed and resolved and/or anticipated and avoided. Diagnosis and evaluation of the operation and management of an organization can pave the way for initiatives and innovations towards change and the betterment of the company.
The different types of organizational diagnostic models are: Force Field Analysis: This model is a simple method designed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. It takes into consideration the two major forces affecting an organization: the restraining forces that are borne from the limitations of the company; and, the driving forces that are borne out of the effective and positive characteristics of the organization. In applying this diagnostic method, the desired balance in enhancing the driving forces to counter the restraining forces will be achieved.
Leavitt’s Model This diagnostic tool model desgined by H. J. Leavitt in 1967 looks into the contributing variables in an organization. These variables are the tasks performed; the structure designed; the technology implemented and the human resources available.
What this model checks are the changes in any and each of the variables and how they affect each other. In diagnosing an organization using this will pinpoint effectiveness of change that will benefit all the variables. Likert System Analysis R.
Likert designed a diagnosis model in 1967 that addresses the motivation; communication; interaction; decision making; goal setting; control and performance aspects of an organization. These aspects of an organization are reflected in four different management systems such are the exploitative-authoritative type; the benevolent-authoritative type; the consultative type; and the participative group type. This model uses the questionnaire tool to assess an across the board opinion among the employees, thus, a true consensus can be derived at and better analyzed as the responses are graphed and plotted to see trends and transitions.
Open Systems Theory Organizations are deemed to be a social entity and the open systems theory greatly considers the feedback from its environment and outside factors. This diagnostic model considers inputs; throughputs; outputs and renewed inputs in and out of the organization to achieve the desired dynamics towards efficiency. In diagnosing through the open systems theory, the organization has a wider leverage to really see the finer details of its function in the inside and in the outside that will lead to a more comprehensive identification of more factors towards change.
Weisbord’s Six-Box Model This model as designed in 1976 by Weisbord outlines the categories in an organization that must be diagnosed: its purposes; structures; relationships; leadership; rewards and helpful mechanisms. Everything that work and play around those categories must be identified and congruently be evaluated towards initiated and innovative, appropriate change. This will identify the “what is” aspect of the categories and then arrive at “what should be”. In applying this model, an organization can profoundly dissect its functions thru the very pinpointed questions to be asked.
The Congruence Model for Organization Analysis This model is a dynamic combination of the principle of the Open Systems Theory; the Leavitt System Analysis and the Weisbord Six-Box Model. Nadler-Tushman developed this analytical method with the assumption that organizations are dynamic entities operating within a wider environment outside of its confines and that there are behaviors among its employees as individual and groups that transpire and interact and transact.
This model is remarkable because it zeroes-in into the aspects of the functions in the organization in terms of whether they fit or they do not fit. It is a model that analyzes relevance and congruence in the interaction of the functions. McKinsey 7S Framework Within the framework of an organization as what the McKinsey Consultants identified in 1981 are the “7-S” that interact: style; staff; systems; strategy; structure; skills; shared values. These variables are illustrated as cells and molecules which makes them interdependent with each other.
The framework therefore rationalizes that to achieve efficiency in an organization, all of those variables must be simultaneously, equally efficient. Any change on any of the variable must correlate with a change in the others. The benefit of using this model is that any initiatives towards change will be reflected in each and every variable of the organization and not just on only one. Tichy’s Technical Political Cultural (TPC) Framework This is a model that further analyzes the environment an organization is in, together with its history.
It was designed in 1983. In this diagnosis, the cultural, political and technical dynamics of the organization are identified. The merit of this model is that it considers diagnosing to be very specific about every “strand” of the organization’s political, cultural and technical dynamics that they should be aligned, managed congruently for the organization to be efficient. High-Performance Programming This diagnostic model adopted the Likert System Analysis to work on the four levels in the organization.
Level 1 is identified as the reactive level. The responsive level is the 2nd level. The 3rd level is the proactive level and the 4th is the high-performance level. It was in 1984 that Nelson and Burns designed this model to enable organizations to plan the right interventions towards the necessary transformation. Utilizing this model will enable an organization to truly empower every individual in its employ that will lead to growth and development. Diagnosing Individual and Group Behavior
This model specifically focuses on the individual behavior of employees in the organization. M. I. Harrison used in1987 the principles of the Open Systems theory in designing this model. This model takes into account the variable transpiring on the organizational level; the variables on the group level and the variables on the individual level. The distinctive premise of this model that is remarkable is that it considers the quality work life of employees. The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change
Burke-Litwin developed this diagnostic model in 1990, thus this is more modern method. This diagnosis process covers the 12 theoretical variables; the consideration of the variable effect of the climate and culture of an organization; the distinction between transactional and transformational dynamics of the organization; and, the specification of the nature and direction of the effect of the variables. This diagnosis model is the most comprehensive method that will truly define an organization. A. T. &T. (merged with BellSouth Corporation)
Going two notches higher because of its year 2008 revenue performance at US$124 billion –A. T. &T. ranked No. 8 amongst Fortune top 500 global companies. This is higher by 4. 3% from its 2007 revenue earnings. 2008 Profits is US$12 billion. Based in Dallas, Texas, A. T. &T. merged with BellSouth in the year 2006. At close of the last trading hour of the last trading day for the week, April 24, 2009 positioned A. T. &T. stock at US$. 25. 22 per share. At more than 100 years of corporate existence, A. T. &T.
is the world’s largest communications holding company with most advanced, most innovative, most comprehensive telecommunication services from telephones, to internet, to multimedia services, to entertainment solutions meeting individual to multinational business needs of its 77 million customers.
Its research and development laboratories are the most advanced facilities in modern day technology. The leadership it has etched in telecommunication is due to the groundbreaking initiatives in innovations and inventions. Its technological advancements have merited seven Nobel Prizes and thousands of patents all over the world.
A. T. &T. sustains its corporate governance by solidifying six strategic focus areas: through their commitments to the betterment of communities; through their meritorious investment in people; through their leadership with integrity, ethics and responsibility; through their environmental concerns for sustainable protection; through their efficient networking with people, businesses and customers; and through their consistently innovating technology. A. T. &T. has more than 300,000 employees worldwide. The career and work environment that the company offers its employees is holistic and comprehensive.
Employees have a track opportunity to grow. They are made to be involved with the company’s advocacies. They receive above industry standard benefits and privileges. They are continually educated and trained. They dwell within the spirit of true teamwork and concern like a family.
Due to the comprehensive global operation and services, the Burke-Litwin diagnostic model will dynamically ensure that continuity and sustainability of the excellence position and prestige that A. T. &T. pursues in the industry. The Burke-Litwin model has the tools and mechanics to analyze the very wide external environment of A.T&T.
The many executive positions in the company together with its thousands of employees mandate a more astute conduct of interrelationship behavior plus a unifying culture, a conducive work climate and the alignment of skills, job and performance matching.
The mission and strategy of the company together with its management practices can be very well checked by this model, together with the structure of the functions and the system of policies. A complex and dynamic A. T&T. will thrive further and better if they check and balance their organization with the Burke-Litwin model.
Falletta, S.V., Ed.D., “Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review & Synthesis”. 2005. http://www.leadersphere.com/img/Orgmodels.pdf.
“Fortune 500 of 2009” Fortune Magazine. CNNMone.com. http://www.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2009/full_list/.
A.T.&T. Corporate Profile http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5711.