The Industrial Revolution

Enclosure
larger fields which wealthy landowners enclosed with fences or hedges; it made it so they could cultivate larger fields and use new seeding and harvesting methods. landowners experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop fields
crop rotation
important because different crops being grown would allow for the land to lose and gain nutrients
industrialization
the process of developing machine production of goods
factors of production
LAND LABOR CAPITAL
1: technology (gov’t encouraged)
2: capital ($)
3: labor
4: natural resources (land)
5: markets (places to sell)
6: efficient transportation
7: favorable social & political climate
factory
large buildings that wealthy textile merchants set up. they would hold spinning machines
entrepreneur
a person who organizes, manages, and takes risks of a business
urbanization
city building and movement of people to cities
middle class
a social class in Britain made up of wealthy people like skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers
they grew wealthier than aristocrats and landowners ; landowners looked down on them and 1800 rich entrepreneurs were considered the social equals of the lords of the countryside
corporation
a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for its debts
laissez-faire
the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference; it favors a free market unregulated by the gov’t; comes from “let people do as they please”
Adam Smith
-professor at the University of glasgow, Scotland- defended the idea of a free economy or free markets
-wrote The Wealth of Nations; according to him, economic liberty guaranteed economic progress and the gov’t should not be involved in the economy
capitalism
an economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making profit
-without wars and epidemics to kill off extra people, they were destined to be poor and miserable
-in a market system, if there are many workers and abundant resources, labor and resources are cheap
-wages should be forced down as population increased
-creating minimum wage laws and better working conditions would upset the free market system, lower profits, and undermine the production of wealth in society
utilitarianism
-people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness
-the government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people, this is the way a gov’t policy would only be useful
-the individual should be free to pursue his or her own advantage without interference from the state
-it is wrong for workers to lead poor lives (starvation)
-more equal division in profits, women’s rights
-pushed for reforms in the legal and prison systems and in education
socialism
-the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
-grew out of an optimistic view of human nature, belief in progress, and concern for social justice
-gov’t should actively plan the economy and not just depend on free-market capitalism
-gov’t control of factories, mines, railroads, and key industries would abolish poverty and promote equality
-public ownership would help the workers who were at mercy of greedy employers
Karl Marx
he introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism
-argued that human societies have always been divided into warring classes
-in their own time, these were middle-class “haves” called employers or bourgeoise; “have-nots” which were workers called the proletariat
-industrial rev had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor
-believed the capitalist system would eventually destroy itself
communism
the final phase of capitalist self destruction
-a form of complete socialism in which the means of production- land, mines, factories, railroads, and business would be owned by the people
-private property would not exist ; all goods and services would be shared equally
union
voluntary associations which workers joined together to press for reforms in the 1800s
collective bargaining
negotiations between workers and their employers
strike
refuse to work by workers; (if factory owners refused the demands of better working conditions and higher pay)
Proletariat
the “have-nots” according the Marx
The Communist Manifesto
a pamphlet written by Marx which outlined Marx and Engel’s arguments
Explain the factors the contributed to the industrial revolution in Britain
-large population of workers
-natural resources: 1: water power and coal to fuel the new machines
2: iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
3: rivers for inland transportation
4: harbors for merchant ships to sail
-expanding economy to support industrialization
-highly developed banking system which encouraged to invest in new machinery
-overseas trade
-economic prosperity
-climate of progress contributed to increased demand for goods
-parliament passed laws which protected business and helped expansion
-military and political success
Describe key inventions that furthered the Industrial Revolution
-seed drill: more efficient way of sowing seeds; larger share of seed germinated which boosted crop yields
-crop rotation: kept the soil full of nutrients when it lost them
-flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule: all helped to develop better machines for textile industry
-cotton gin: multiplied amount of cotton that could be cleaned
-steam engine: transportation
-canals & roads & railroad
Describe the social and economic effects of industrialization
Social:
The social impact was that it basically changed the way people lived and worked. It brought about the new social classes (of capitalist, factory workers and later, middle class society.) the negative effect is that it led to the exploitation of the weaker sections of the society.
The political impact is that, as the government policy of the early years of industrialisation was based on a theory of ‘laissez faire’ or ‘let us alone’, an idea of the famous economist, adam smith. According to this political theory, business men should be free to look after their own interest and that the government was not to interfere with the business of the private industry. Only the unwritten law of supply and demand determines the size of profits. The same law would also determine the fate of the worker, his salary and working conditions. After this, labourers later formed unions which went on strike and they turned out to get violent. In mid 19th century, the greatest threat to captalism came in the form of an alternative theory known as marxism or communism, put forward by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.

Economic:

Explain the factors that contributed to industrial growth in the United States
-immigrant labor
-rich deposits of iron ore & coal
-water power rivers
-timber-shipbuilding
-petroleum fuel
-US gov’t placed tariffs on goods-protectionism
-railroads
Explain the spread of industrialization in Europe
-European merchants started to adopt to Britain’s profitable new methods of manufacturing goods
BELGIUM: rich deposits of iron and coal and waterways; they got secrets for building spinning machinery machinery, steam engines, and railway locomotives
GERMANY: pockets of industrialization appeared in coal areas; copied British model and imported equipment and engineers; children sent to England to learn industry; built railroads that linked cities; economic strength spurred ability as military power
EUROPE: agricultural pocketed cities still had pockets or industrialization; continual growth led to railroads
Identify the effects of industrialization on the rest of the world
-shifted the world balance of power
-widened gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries while strengthening economic ties
-industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured goods ==> large equality
-European countries began seizing colonies for economic resources
-imperialism gave more wealth; imperialism born
Identify the ideas and thinkers of the Industrial revolution
Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo: in favor of free government
Malthus: poverty & misery avoidable because population increasnig faster than food supply; checks: wars, diseases, famines; urged families to have less children
David Ricardo: agreed w/ Malthus; said that when the population increases the wages go down
Jeremy Benthan & John Stuart Mill- utilitarians

Marx: socialism

Explain the origins and the main concepts of socialism
-the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
-grew out of an optimistic view of human nature, belief in progress, and concern for social justice
-gov’t should actively plan the economy and not just depend on free-market capitalism
-gov’t control of factories, mines, railroads, and key industries would abolish poverty and promote equality
-public ownership would help the workers who were at mercy of greedy employers
Compare and contrast socialism and capitalism
Socialism
-the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
-grew out of an optimistic view of human nature, belief in progress, and concern for social justice
-gov’t should actively plan the economy and not just depend on free-market capitalism
-gov’t control of factories, mines, railroads, and key industries would abolish poverty and promote equality
-public ownership would help the workers who were at mercy of greedy employers
Capitalism
an economic system in which money is invested in business ventures with the goal of making profit
-without wars and epidemics to kill off extra people, they were destined to be poor and miserable
-in a market system, if there are many workers and abundant resources, labor and resources are cheap
-wages should be forced down as population increased
-creating minimum wage laws and better working conditions would upset the free market system, lower profits, and undermine the production of wealth in society
Examine unionization and legislative reform
Unionization occurred when workers joined together for better working conditions; it underwent a slow and painful growth because the gov’t denied the right to form unions because they were a threat to social stability; goals were to raise wages and improve working conditions ; AFT formed
-Parliament passed the Factory Act of 1833 for children and they passed a bill for working women
-the Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited the workday to ten hours for women and children in factories
LEGISLATION passed to protect child workers; the National Child Labor Committee to end labor; these groups pressured politicians to ban child labor and set max working hours
Describe other reform movements of the 1800s
-abolition of slavery started in The British empire and spread to the United States and new class of industrialists developed supported cheap labor rather than slave labor … eventually labor abolished everywhere
-women fought for change; women who stayed home made less many than women who stayed in factories but factory workers made less than 1/3 that men did ; began to wonder why their own rights were denied on the basis of gender
-public education and prison reform
What were the four natural resources needed for British industrialization?
1: water power and coal to fuel machines
2: iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
3: rivers for inland transportation
4: harbors from which its merchant ships set sail
How did the enclosure movement change agriculture in England?
landowners could cultivate larger fields by using new seeding and harvesting methods; landowners experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yields
Results:1: landowners experiments with new agriculture methods
2: large landownrs forced small farmers to become tenant farmers and give up farming and move to the cities
Name two inventions that were created during the Industrial Revolution. Describe their impact.
Describe the living conditions in Britain during industrialization
– no sanitary codes or building controls
-lack of adequate housing, education, and police protection
-lack of running water and indoor plumbing
-frequent epidemics sweeping through slums
-eventually, better housing, healthier diets, and cheaper clothing
How did the new middle class transform the social structure of British society during industrialization?
in the past, landowners and aristocrats occupied the top position in society (with wealth comes power); now some factory owners, merchants, and investments bankers grew wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats
-gradually a larger middle class emerged with upper middle class of gov’t employees, doctors, lawyers, and managers of mines, factories and shops; the lower middle class had factory overseers like skilled toolmakers, mechanical drafters, and printers
-no improvements to life of poor
How did industrialization affect Manchester’s natural environment?
-pollution:
-coal blackened the air
-textile dyes and wastes poisoned Manchester’s Irwell River
Why were other countries slower to industrialize than Britain?
– Britain had, at the time, a comparatively stable economy
– Britain’s government was also stable
– Transportation is easier due to oceans and inland waterways
– Wealthy class and middle class were quite large = more investors/consumers
– Laissez-faire economics gave Britain an edge compared to mercantilist countries
Explain the origin and diffusion of industrialization in the United States
What helps to explain the rise in global inequality during the Industrial Revolution?
-industrialization widened the gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries
-industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products because industrialization requires a steady supply of raw materials and lands
What were the two warring classes Marx and Engels outlined in the Communist Manifesto?
the “haves” or employers called the bourgeoisie against the “have nots” or workers called the proletariat

while the wealthy controlled the means of producing goods, the poor performed backbreaking labor under terrible conditions

Describe two ways women fought for change during the Industrial Revolution
-women formed unions in the trades where they dominated; some women served as safety inspectors in factories where other women worked
-college-educated women ran settlement houses which served the poor residents of slum neighborhoods
-movement for women’s rights began in the US 1848
-women activists around the world joined to found the International Council for Women where 27 delegates and observers attended the 1899 meeting