Spatial Comparisons of Organotin Contamination in Common Seafood Species Collected in Hong Kong Waters

Spatial Comparisons of Organotin Contamination in Common Seafood Species Collected in Hong Kong Waters

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1 ) Working title………………………………………………………………………………………………………P.3

2 ) Background of study……….……………………………………………………………………………..…..P.3

3 ) Mechanism of biosorption………………………………………….……………………………………..P.4

4 ) Methodology……………………………………………………………………………………………………..P.6

5 ) Hypothesis for the project………………………………………………………………………………….P.7

6 ) Overall undertaking aim……………………………………………………………………………………………..P.8

7 ) Specific objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………P.8

8 ) Problems to be overcome…………………………………………………………………………………..P.8

9 ) Hazard assessment………………………………………………………………………………………………….P.9

9.1 Laboratory…………………………………………………………………………………………………….P.9

9.2 Field visit……………………………………………………………………………………………………….P.9

10 ) Schedule…………………………………………………………….……………………………………….….P.10

11 ) References……………………………………………………………………………………………………..P.11

  1. Working rubric:

Spatial comparings of organotin taint in common seafood species collected in Hong Kong Waterss

  1. Background of survey

Organotin compounds are used for a assortment of applications, including antifouling pigments for ship hulls, wood preservatives, and UV stabilizers in plastics. Organotin compounds are considered to be one of the hormone disruptors since legion Marine beings exposed to tribyltyltin ( TBT ) or triphentyltin ( TPT ) exhibit sexual abnormalcies ( Yamabe et al. , 2000 ) . Organotin compounds are hydrophobic due to the presence of hydrocarbon substituents and therefore their solubility in H2O is comparatively little ( Yi et al. , 2012 ) . Wide distribution, high hydrophobicity, and continuity of organotin compounds have raised concern about their bioaccumulation, their possible

biomagnification in the nutrient webs, and their inauspicious effects to

the human wellness and environment ( Galloway, 2006 ; Nakanishi,2007 ; Takahashi et al. , 1999 ; Veltman et al. , 2006 ) .

In consciousness of the unsought impacts of TBT, attempts have been undertaken in order to happen a planetary solution to this job and legal demands have been enforced to protect the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization ( IMO ) called for a planetary pact that bans the application of TBT-based pigments get downing 1 January 2003, and entire prohibition by 1 January 2008 ( CD,2002 ; IMO,2001 )

Several carnal experiments have suggested that the spectrum of possible inauspicious chronic systemic effects of organotins in worlds is rather wide and includes primary

immunosuppressive, endocrinopathic, neurotoxic metabolic, and enzymatic activity, every bit good as possible eyepiece, cuticular, cardiovascular, upper respiratory, pneumonic, GI, blood dyscrasias, reproductive/teratogenic/developmental, liver, kidney, bioaccumulative, and perchance carcinogenic activity ( EU-SCOOP, 2006, Nakanishi, 2007 ; WHO-IPCS, 1999 ) .

Hong Kong is a international port and the largest container lthroughout in the universe ( Marine Department of Hong Kong SAR, 2005 ) . Besides vessel activity in Hong Kong is continuously increasing within the see boundary ( 1600 kilometer2) . Most of sea traffic are intense around Victoria Harbour. It is between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. These activities/facilities are major beginnings to let go of organotins compounds to local Marine environment. Besides, vessel-based pollutants can come from other country. For illustration, Yan Tian Port ( Shen Zhen ) . It is located near to Hong Kong boundary ( & lt ; 5km ) and started operation from 1996. With rapid development on sea traffic, organotins is an of import contamination in Hong Kong Waterss ( Leung et al. , 2006 )

5 ) Hypothesis for the undertaking:

-Ship activity is the chief beginning of organotins compunds.

-Organotins can be accumulated through nutrient concatenation

  1. Overall undertaking purpose:

– Analyse more than 6 compounds ( including TPT ) .

– Comparison taint degree in different territories in Hong Kong.

– Comparison taint degree in different species of common seafood.

– Investigate the jobs caused by organotin taint.

– Determine the beginnings of organotin.

– And, seek to happen out the solution the prevent farther taint.

  1. Agenda:

October ( hebdomad 10-14 )

Week 8-13: Preparation of sample

November ( hebdomad 14-18 )

Week 14-18: sample aggregation and categorization

December ( hebdomad 19-23 )

Week 19-23: Sample analysis

January ( hebdomad 24-27 )

Week 24-27: Writing for the Dissertation

February ( hebdomad 28-31 )

Week 28: Preparation for presentation

Week 28: OralPresentation

Week 29-35: Alteration of Dissertation

Week35: Acme Draft of thesis to Prof.Kenneth Leung

March ( hebdomad 36-44 )

Week 36-44: Revision of thesis

Week44: Acme Final version of thesis

  1. Mentions:

Cadmium Commission Directive 2002/62/EC of 9 July 2002. O J Eur Commun 2002 ; L183:58–9.

EU-SCOOP. Revised appraisal of the hazards to wellness and the environment associated with the usage of the four organotin compounds TBT, DBT, DOT and TPT. Directorate General Health and Consumer Protection ; 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk_committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_047.pdf Accessed: 03/10/2014.

Galloway, T. S. ( 2006 ) . Biomarkers in environmental and human wellness hazard appraisal.Marine pollution bulletin,53( 10 ) , 606-613.

IMO. International Marine Organisation. International convention on the control of harmful antifouling systems on ships ; 2001.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.imo.org/Conventions/mainframe.asp? topic_id=529 Accessed: 01/10/2014.

Leung, K. M. , Kwong, R. P. , Ng, W. C. , Horiguchi, T. , Qiu, J. W. , Yang, R. , … & A ; Lam, P. K. ( 2006 ) . Ecological hazard appraisals of hormone interrupting organotin compounds utilizing marine neogastropods in Hong Kong.Chemosphere,65( 6 ) , 922-938.

Marine Department of Hong Kong SAR, 2005. Port of Hong Kong in Figures. 2005 Edition.

Nakanishi, T. ( 2007 ) . Potential toxicity of organotin compounds via atomic receptor signaling in mammals.Journal of wellness scientific discipline,53( 1 ) , 1-9.

Takahashi, S. , Mukai, H. , Tanabe, S. , Sakayama, K. , Miyazaki, T. , & A ; Masuno, H. ( 1999 ) . Butyltin residues in livers of worlds and wild tellurian mammals and in fictile merchandises.Environmental Pollution,106( 2 ) , 213-218.

Veltman, K. , Huijbregts, M. A. , Van den Heuvel-Greve, M. J. , Vethaak, A. D. , & A ; Hendriks, A. J. ( 2006 ) . Organotin accretion in an estuarial nutrient concatenation: Comparing field measurings with theoretical account appraisals.Marine environmental research, 61( 5 ),511-530.

WHO-IPCS. World Health Organisation. International Programme on ChemicalSafety. Tributyl compounds. Environmental wellness standards 116 ; 1999. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc116.htm Accessed: 03/10/2014.

Yamabe, Y. , Hoshino, A. , Imura, N. , Suzuki, T. , & A ; Himeno, S. ( 2000 ) . Enhancement of androgen-dependent written text and cell proliferation by tributyltin and triphenyltin in human prostate malignant neoplastic disease cells.Toxicology and applied pharmacological medicine,169( 2 ) , 177-184.

Yi, A. X. , Leung, K. M. , Lam, M. H. , Lee, J. S. , & A ; Giesy, J. P. ( 2012 ) . Review of mensural concentrations of triphenyltin compounds in marine ecosystems and meta-analysis of their hazards to worlds and the environment.Chemosphere,89( 9 ) , 1015-1025.

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