Race and intelligence
Essay 1 An individual’s work achievement can be best predicted by measuring their intelligence. Discuss. In modern life, the motive to success in career has been researched in order to benefit both individual and organization.
The term “intelligence” has been acknowledged over the world as a common way to compare between individual people. Majority believe that succeed of every people can be best measured in that way. However, after many year of using that, some people argue intelligence is not the best way to show how good in work people are.
They figure out other ways of measuring success of worker. So does intelligence measurement method make the best prediction for work achievement? This essay is going to discuss about methods for determining an individual’s work outcome for every body clear about that. Before discussing about career success and measurement, there is some knowledge that people should know. As everyone knows ‘intelligence’ is used all over the world but in fact, what intelligence is?
As it was mentioned in Principle of Organisation Behaviour (2005), “intelligence” can be classified as: Pure speed which is the speed of process for simple information, choice speed which is an ability to make a choice, speed of lexical access is the time taken for retrieving information from long-term memory, speed of reasoning processes is speed at higher order information processing. Career is a general course of action or conduct in life, or in a particular part or calling in life, or in some special undertaking; usually applied to course or conduct which is of a public character (1913 Webster).
Success is the accomplishment of an aim or purpose. The other meaning of that is the attainment of fame, wealth, or social status (Oxford dictionary 1998). So, career success could be defined as achieving the goal of work. For an individual, goal of works are difference for example some people want to do their normal jobs, some want to do better than others in order to be premoted. In general, the work achievement that managers want to define can be understood as how good the work could be done.
The measurement of intelligence is the way they get score to compare between people. Nevertheless, how they calculate the score of one thing that cannot be seen. Charles Spearman explores the “G” number which is the score related to intelligent. Many psychologists broke out the “G” into many parts such as Schmidt and Hunter (1998), Sir Cyril Burt and Thurstone (1938). These primary factors were identified which we would nowadays known as: Spatial ability, verbal reasoning, perceptual speed, numerical ability, memory, verbal fluency, inductive reasoning.
The basis education in the UK during 1944 to 1971, the found that school education could be determined at the age of 11 by seeing intelligence test score. Actually, it is usually argued that intelligence is the best single predictor of scholastic achievement (Gottfredson, 2002; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004). Commonly, many organizations believe an ability of individual can be forecasted from an intelligence test score. Moreover, occupational status that is foundation form of achievement can be predicted by individual’s intelligence. Individuals are different.
The same work might have difference result due to difference of method. As being describe in definition, intelligence has been known as the speed of dealing with problem. People who work faster and more efficiency can be more successful at work so that intelligence is an important part of working-achieve judgement. Beside that, intelligent people have more advantage of learning new thing than others. For example, they can find the new way of getting thing done rather than work under supervisor’s order. Intelligence has impacts on education, job performance and income.
Because the more intelligences people have, the better they can achieve in education. That also gives them a chance to have better reference to support their job and income. Jensen (1980) summarizes several causes underlying the later fact. Taking samples with high educational levels attenuate the correlation with intelligence scores (producing values between . 30 and . 40), whereas samples from elementary and high school produce the largest correlations (from . 50 to . 70) because of the greater restriction in range of ability at higher educational levels.
The greater intelligent people can have the better capable abilities they have to achieve higher level of education. With higher IQ results, people can be success in studying at school by faster processing information, solving problem and so on. That way, those people get more information and better understanding about their work. Consequently, they can achieve better grade than the others do. Hence, the effects of intelligent continue with job performance such as people with higher IQ score can do work more accelerative because can process information faster.
They have high pure speed for processing simple information combining with choice speed for retrieving information from long-term memory. Speed of reasoning processes is speed at higher order information processing can makes the work rapidly. Moreover, those people also have the backup from all information, knowledge they gain from work, training and education. They can connect the information that they received and knowledge that they gain for an outcome. Intelligence seems to do a set of barrier to entry into higher-status of occupation for people with low score.
Vvariety of research found that the median scores of accountants was 128 with a range between 94 and 154 while the median for labourers was 88 with range from 94 to 145 (Harrell and Harrell, 1945). That caused by intellectual work require people working more rapidly and accurately with information. That gives people with high faculty of understanding, intellect (the abilities of knowing and reasoning), quickness or superiority of understanding, sagacity, the action or fact of understanding something, knowledge, comprehension better job performance.
Furthermore, higher IQ score more likely be seen as higher education so that those people have better reference, education and training than others do. “The proper aim of higher education in a democratic is to prepare the individual to make wise decision”. (Principle of Organisational Behaviour) As the measurement of intelligence, intelligence can be broken down to many parts. Spatial reasoning is the imagine abilities from perspectives. That copes with flat two dimension diagrams. That is necessary abilities for working as engineering, designer and so on.
Verbal reasoning is the abilities to figure out the relationship. That helps people with job roles where prompt and accurate understanding of written material is important. Perceptual speed shows the speed of decision making. Numerical ability is the abilities of dealing with numbers. That has an effects on job performance because, higher intelligence mean they can have better abilities to deal with special parts of work. According to the results, high scorers are capable of contributing effectively in management and Besides that, Lynn, R. , & Vanhanen, T. 2002) research show that the estimated of national IQ. The results of comparison between GDP and national IQ score, Lynn and Vanhanen coincluded that there was a sthrong relation between intelligence and national wealth. They further argued that the relation was causal, and that it reflected essentially intractable differences in mental competence across countries. On the other hand, in The Mismeasure of Man (1981), Professor Stephen Jay Gcould argues that intelligence tests are based on faulty assumptions and shows their history of being used as the basis for scientific racism.
Although, intelligence measurement is a good method to expect work successive but not all, it does not actually figure out the true value of workers, it misses out many important part that effect to measuring successful. There are many type of intelligences has been identified through history of biology. They are ‘linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, bodily, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic’. As can be seen, many kinds of intelligence are not easy to measure such as intelligent of art. Furthermore, as Halsey (Halsey et al. 1980) said the relationship between intelligence and occupational status occurs as indirect relation and subtly. This is caused by some of the impact of intelligence comes from the powerful shared cultural assumptions. That problem was figure out as being smart is more importance than having experience and understanding the market place. That is not true; because people cannot invest money on the market, they do not know and understand. In addition, some of the affect of intelligence on work exist indirectly because of education, culture, environment, personality, emotion, communication, oopportunity and so on.
For instant, the company cannot judge who is better just by seeing employees’ intelligences between people has IQ 180, diploma and 5 years of experience and the other with the same IQ score has degree and 1-year experience. Education gives people more power from reference, information, knowledge and training. From these points, people can develop further their knowledge, skills better than the others can who do not have as much education as them. Their personality such as hard working is important. In fact, to compare two people with the same range of intelligence their work hardworking must be taken in account.
Because the more he or she does, the more experience he or she get from that. More over, when people practise their skills also improve further and they get more chance of promotion than other does. Besides that, even if people work hard and intelligent, they still have mistake. As long as, they ignore the mistake they made, the errors might increase and their works become worst. Self-monitoring is the ability and willingness to identify the problem and develop self-presentation and the sensitivity to expressive behaviors of others (Hamid, 1994; Lennox and Wolfe, 1984).
Moreover, locus of work can makes the difference at work. People with high level of focusing at work they can reduce their errors that lead to an increasing in working process and performance (Andrisani and Nestel, 1976; Rotter, 1966; Ryckman, 1997). Those people can achieve high performance in disadvantage environment. Communication is also necessary for everyone at work or study because people can gain their knowledge simply by communicate with others. Information, experiences and skills can be transferred from one to another.
That skill not only gives people whom good at a chance to improve ability to adjust to any situation but also helps them to reduce stress level. People need to be extraversion, open to experience in communication because they can have more contacts and oopportunity to learn from others with these personalities. Although good environment can makes people develop better, without suitable personalities and skills they might face difficulties. Emotion cannot be excluded, because every person has different character, emotion so that his or her work might not be measure correctly at one particular period.
A principal emotion is self-esteem refers to how favourably individuals evaluate themselves (Brockner, 1988; Turban and Dougherty, 1994). High level of self-esteem mearns they feel more positive and believe they are more capable to cope with different situations and tasks (Brockner, 1988; Turban and Dougherty, 1994). Those people also have high self-confidence level at work that gives them more capable to do their work successful. With high confident people can have more power to control their work and increase higher chance of work premote.
Nevertheless, optimism also is an importance factor of negative affeactivity. It is a relatively stable dimension of individual differences characterised by a tendency to experience positive emotional states (Levin and Stokes, 1989; Turban and Dougherty, 1994; Watson and Clark, 1984). Moreover, the situation in life might change their successful such as people in poor family cannot have enough condition to pay up the tuition fee. In consequence, they lose their chance to get into higher education lead to an unsuccessful career.
In addition, their work might achieve better or worst due to a difference of support received at work. Besides that, there are many factors effect the success of individual’s career such as family background, gender, marital status, number of children and so on. That is an implication of several major factor effects on individual’s career success. As far as this essay concern, it can be seen that intelligence is a good way to predict the advantage for education, meanwhile using intelligence term only to measure work achievement might be bias and lead to an incorrect results.