Last Updated 10 Jan 2022

P2 – Describe the Four Main Tissue Types in the Body

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The Cell P2 – Describe the four main tissue types in the body Inside the body, there are four mains types of tissue which include the Epithelial, Muscular, Nervous and Connective. Tissues are known as groups of cells which have a certain structure to retain a specific job. Epithelial Tissue covers the body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities. It protects our insides, it’s known as the skin. It also absorbs in the intestinal lining and stomach, otherwise known as the gut. It also filters in the kidneys and secretes(forms glands).

Epithelial cells are attached to each other closely forming a protective barrier and have no blood vessels but can soak up nutrients from blood vessels in connective tissue from underneath. It protects the body from dirt, dust, bacteria and other microbes which could harm you. It is innervated which means it has a lot of nerves in it and it is very good at regenerating for example having a grazed knee or sunburn. It also protects the main organ which is the heart, from rubbing against and harming the lobes in the heart against lungs.

It gives us an extra barrier for security and saves the heart from many different injuries and also helps protect the upper body around the heart area. Connective Tissue is internal support for our organs, it protects them and wraps around them like a cushion. It stores nutrients and runs through the organs’ capsules and inside deep layers of the skin. These tissues have some sort of supporting role, which include bone, tendons, blood, adipose and cartilage.

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There are three different categories for connective tissue; Supportive connective tissues are like bone and cartilage, Fluid connective tissues are like the blood and Connective Tissue proper are both loose and dense connective tissue, which links the tissues together. Bones support the lungs and protect from injury. Elastic connective tissue is also found in the lungs and is able to extend like an elastic band when forced. Connective tissues also give shape and strength to other tissues that form the heart, it ensures the heart beats and functions properly..

Nervous Tissue is the main component of the nervous system, it conducts impulses too and from body organs by neutrons. The three main elements of nervous tissue are found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Nervous Tissue controls many systems in our bodies without us being aware of it. When we breathe, air moves in to our respiratory system and if we should choke a coughing reflex should occur by nerve reflexes sent from the brain. Nervous tissue also plays a big part in our cardio vascular system, it automatically tells the heart to beat and keeps blood pumping around the body, this also controls the heart rate.

Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, control of muscles and glands, homeostasis, and mental activity. Muscular Tissue is responsible for the bodies’ movement, moves food, blood and waste through the bodies’ organs and is responsible for mechanical digestion. There are three different types of muscle tissue; Smooth Muscle found in blood vessel walls and organ walls and spindle-shaped cells for pushing things through organs, involuntary. Skeletal Muscle found in large body muscles, voluntary, packed in bundles and attached to bones for movement.

Skeletal muscles are important for holding bones in the correct position so they are essential to the rib cage to protect your respiratory system making sure your cardio vascular system receives enough oxygen. Cardiac Muscle found in the heart wall, involuntary and striated muscle with intercalated discs connecting cells for synchronized contractions during the hearts’ beat. Cardiac muscles ensure the heart receives oxygen from the lungs which is carried through the blood, when the cardiac muscles relax after contracting the heart fills with blood containing oxygen.

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