This chapter of a thesis commences a brief statement and enumerating the main topics that are to be covered in it; namely; 1) Research Design; 2) Sources of Data (Locale of the Study and Population/Sampling); 3) Instrumentation and Data Collection; and 4) Tools for Data Analysis.Research Design
The appropriate research design should be specified and described.
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A research design encompasses the methodology and procedure employed to conduct scientific research. The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g.: descriptive-longitudinal case study), research question and hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. Sources of Data
Describe the locale of the study and the research population.
Locale of the Study
Describes the place where the study was conducted and the rationale behind its choice.
Describe the population of interest and the sampling of subjects used in the study.
Instrumentation and Data Collection
Describe the instrument, what it will measure, how to interpret, to whom it will be administered and if it is necessary, describe how it will be administered. Discuss how the validity and the reliability will be established. Specify the level of reliability (probability). Give details of instruction given to assistants if persons other than the researcher gather data. State qualifications of informants if used in the study.
Tools for Data Analysis
Determine and justify the statistical treatment for each sub-problem Determine and justify the scales of values used and the descriptive equivalent ratings, if any.
In thesis writing, the most difficult part to defend is Chapter 4 because it is inthis section where you will present the results of the whole study. Here is a sample thesis format.
In thesis writing, the most difficult part to defend is Chapter 4 because it is in this section where you will present the results of the whole study. Here is a sample thesis format.
CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Presentation of Data
Present the findings of the study in the order of the specific problem as stated in the statement of the Problem. Present the data in these forms:
The ZOOM LENS approach may be used for purposes of clarity in the presentation of data, i.e. general to particular, macro to micro or vice versa.
Analysis of the Data
Data may be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the level of measurement and the number of dimensions and variables of the study. Analyze in depth to give meaning to the data presented in the data presented in the table. Avoid table reading. State statistical descriptions in declarative sentences, e.g. in the studies involving:
State level of correlation
State whether positive or negative
Indicate the level of significance
Make a decision
Differences of Measures
State the obtained statistical results
Indicate the level of significance of the difference
Make a decision
Interpretation of Data
1. Establish interconnection between and among data
2. Check for indicators whether hypothesis/esis/are supported or not by findings. 3. Link the present findings with the previous literature.
4. Use parallel observations with contemporary events to give credence presented in the introduction. 5. Draw out implications.
In thesis writing, the Chapter is simply a summary of what the researcher had done all throughout the whole research. The following format serves as a sample: CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
This describes the problem, research design, and the findings (answer to the questions raised). The recommended format is the paragraph form instead of the enumeration form. For each of the problems, present:
The salient findings,
The results of the hypothesis tested
These are brief, generalized statements in answer to the general and each of the specific sub-problems. These contain generalized in relation to the population. These are general inferences applicable to a wider and similar population. Flexibility is considered in making of conclusions. It is not a must to state conclusions on a one-to-one correspondence with the problems and the findings as all variables can be subsume in one paragraph. Conclusions may be used as generalizations from a micro to a macro-level or vice versa (ZOOM LENS approach).
They should be based on the findings and conclusion of the study. Recommendations may be specific or general or both. They may include suggestions for further studies. They should be in non-technical (skilled)
They should be feasible, workable, flexible, doable, adaptable. An action plan is optional.
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