Alternative fuel for cars – Research Proposal
This research proposal is written for proposing further research on the suitable and economically sustainable alternative fuel for cars.This study was taken as need of hour to reduce the cost towards oil imports and control pollution, which if not controlled now, will lead to worst Global Warming.Basically this proposal is based on the current and projected car population.
To be sustainable and economical, the researcher has taken the study envisaging on the car market. The cars are major attributors to emission. Since car population density is directly proportional to the human population density, there will be more harm to the people.
Car population and projections Number of cars in the developing world will increase 300% between 1995 and 2020. The growth in automobile population is growing at slightly less than twice the rate of the human population in North America and Western Europe. The growth of cars in developing countries is proliferating due to economic boom. There have been no oil field discoveries since 1988 and there will be a global decline in oil production within 15 to 20 years. It is projected that by 2020 there will be well over 1. 1 billion motor vehicles (cars) in the world. Riley, R (2006).
World car population. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http://www. rqriley. com/sld002. htm There were 200 million cars in 1970 and 500 million cars in 1990. During 1997 there were 600 million cars and by 2027 the projection is double the figure of 1997 data. Elert, G (2003). Number of cars. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http://hypertextbook. com/facts/2001/MarinaStasenko. shtml Current Global warming and its effect and projection CO2 had varied only about 5 percent from the last ice age (10,000 years ago) to the industrial revolution year in the last century.
The CO2 level in atmosphere from the industrial revolution year to 2030 is estimated to be doubled. That means within 150 years, the CO2 level in atmosphere will be doubled. Main reason and one of the biggest single contributors for this change is emission from the burning of fossil fuels. We were able to control emissions by 95% in the last 20 years by the state of art emission control systems and research on fuel ingredients which resulted to lesser emissions. But looking at the projected car population the advantage gained through the emission control will be wiped off in a decade. Riley, R (2006).
World car population. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http:// www. rqriley. com/moma2. htm Different alternative fuels –Merits and Demerits Ethanol –Produced from starch crops like corn and other crops like sugar beets, cane or cellulose materials, fast growing trees and grasses. It produces less green house gas emissions than conventional fuel. One third of US gasoline contains ethanol in a low level blend to reduce air pollution. The disadvantage is, it gives lesser mileage because of its lower energy content than straight petrol. Bio diesel – Produced from vegetable oils and animal fats.
It produces less air pollution than petroleum based diesel. Production is expensive. Cost can be brought done by doing research. No need to modify the engines. Good lubricant to the engine. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-Fossil fuel, generates less air pollutants. It is expensive. Compressed natural gas (CNG) – It produces very low level of pollution. Available refuelling station is still a problem. The storage place in the car occupies more space. Not able to go long distance because of refuelling station availability problem. Hydrogen-It can be produced from fossil fuels, nuclear power or from renewable resources like hydropower.
Fuel cell vehicles powered by pure hydrogen emit no harmful air pollutants. Methanol – It is also known as wood alcohol. Methanol is produced by a process using natural gas as a feedstock. It will contaminate ground water. It gives very less mileage. Electricity-It is very silent and no pollution at all. The cost of Vehicle fitted with electric motor is in higher side, the battery charging time is too long. It takes even 8-10 hours to fully charge. The cost of running the car is very cheap. It is only good for city riding with lesser kilometre. For a long distance, it cannot be used because recharging is required for every 150 km.
Hybrid cars- It uses combination of small internal combustion engine and an electric motor. It switches between IC engine and electric motors depending on the terrains and speeds. The cars with this type of arrangement are getting popular. The good example for this is Toyota Prius Ron giles (2006), Web extension to Babyboomers, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. babyboomersguide. co. nz/Articles/Alternative+Fuels. html Methodology The above said alternate fuels are under continuous research and until now no breakthrough outcomes has been implementation.
The problems with the above fuels are the cost of production of fuel itself. It is costlier than petrol and diesel, the performance does not match with the existing petrol and diesel engines, engine modification cost is too high to accommodate the alternative fuel, refilling, recharging and distribution problem exists. Hence there is no practical breakthrough yet. Already all car manufacturers have invested huge money, time and effort in developing engines for performance and getting succeeded in terms of better torque, noise level, better pickup and mileage.
To cope up with this, the research should be practicable and down to earth without any major investment. My proposal My proposal is for Bio Diesel. The reason for selecting for further research is, it is viable, practicable and affordable alternative fuel with no major research cost comparing with research cost of other alternative fuels. By using Bio Diesel there is no pollution problem, no modification of existing car engines for using the same. Only slight adjustments required. It lubricates the engines thus gives longer life to it. The existing distribution system of petrol pumps can be used.
It performs better at par with petrol and diesel. It is very safe in transportation better than petrol and diesel because of high flash point. Bio Diesel works well with new technologies such as catalysts. The areas where the research is required is only on ensuring abundant economical availability of the inputs and reducing cost of production by looking into the process . This researcher strongly recommends research on Bio Diesel as future alternative fuel for cars to control the petrol, diesel prices and reduce emission which threatens in the form of Global Warming.
References Web extension to National Biodiesel Board, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www. biodiesel. org/ Web extension to Bio Diesel Now, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. biodieselnow. com/ Ron giles. (2006). Web extension to Babyboomers, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. babyboomersguide. co. nz/Articles/Alternative+Fuels. html Web extension to Car Stuff, Retrived April 7,2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. car-stuff. com/carlinks/future. htm About. Inc. (2008). Web extension to About.
com:cars, Retrieved April,7 2008 from world web http://cars. about. com/od/alternativetransport/ US Department of Energy. (2007, November,20), Web extension to Alternative and Advanced fuels , Retrived April 7, 2008 from the World wide web: http://www. eere. energy. gov/afdc/fuels/ Edumands Inc. (2007). Web extension to China’s car boom:Privately owned car, Retrived April 7, 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. edmunds. com/insideline/do/News/articleId=121598 Fuel Economy (2007),Web extension to Alternative fuels, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. fueleconomy.
gov/Feg/current. shtml Hydrogen boost. (2007). Web extension to What is the Hydrogen-Boost Mileage Enhancement System? Retrieved April 7, 2008 from World Wide Web: www. hydrogen-boost. com/ About. Com (2008). Web extension to Alternative fulesyou’re your car and gasoline saving, Retrived April 7,2008 from World Wide Web,http://saveenergy. about. com/od/fuelingyourautomobile/Alternative_Fuels_for_your_Car_and_Gasoline_Savings. htm About. Com (2008). Web extension to Bio Diesel, Retrived April 7,2008 from http://saveenergy. about. com/od/fuelingyourautomobile/g/biodiesel. htm