Introduction The Problem And Its Background
It is well known that children learn in various ways and have their own individual styles and strategies. Some may enjoy group works, others individual works. Some may prefer teacher instructions with worksheets and firm direction, rather than self-generated research projects. There are numerous ways children learn, but how does the surrounding environment, affects a child’s learning ability and influence the learning strategies that employ?
Our society these days are divided into two different ways of thinking on the education. Some may believe that alternative methods are better than the traditional methods of teaching but yet these two methods are both a successful ways. Every method in teaching is the same for they deliver the same message to the students. Traditional method of teaching also known as the back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to a long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate.
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Some forms of education reform promotes the adoption of progressive education practices, a more holistic approach which focuses on individual students’ need and self-expression. In eyes of reformers, traditional teacher-centered methods focused on rote memorization must be abandoned in favor of students-centered and task-based approaches to learning. Depending on the context, the opposite of traditional method of teaching may be progressive education, modern education, or the alternative education which is the educational approaches based on developmental psychology.
Scope and Limitations
This study was limited only the creating of the two methods of teaching that may encourage the schools to consider the strategies in teaching such as traditional and alternative methods of teaching to improve students’ skills in learning. S. Y. 2012-2013. The respondents were composed of five selected teachers from Los Banos, Laguna. The researchers used some questionnaires for the teachers to answer on how they used it and how it benefits them, teachers, as well as their students.
Importance of the Study
People tends to be enthusiastic in learning something if examples are based on real situations. Therefore, this research is beneficial to the following persons:
- To the teachers; this could be an additional information as a guide or references for teaching.
- To the Students; It can serve as another source of information that will guide them on whatever purpose they are having weather for research or even on education.
- To the Future Teacher; this serve as a guide for them on what approach they will employ to their students.
- To the Parents; It is also essential for them because they are the one who were responsible in molding their children’s future and also in guiding them in the right path of life.
- To the Administrators; They will be motivated to purchase materials for teachers and students’ usage in teaching and learning.
- To the future researcher; this serves as a related study providing reference that may be used in other researches and it add insight about the different ways or techniques of teaching.
Objectives - The general objective of this study is to define what is traditional ad modern methods of teaching.
Specifically, aimed to:
- To describe and analyze the difference between the old way and the new way of teaching .
- To develop the holistic approach of the educators to their students.
- Hypothesis - There is no significant differences between on the frequency of usage in teaching that uses traditional methods and alternative methods on the students’ achievement.
- Theoretical Framework - Theories of learning attempt to explain why teachers and students behave as they do. Behavioral Theory Skinner renowned s a behaviorist, based his theory on functionalism. Functionalists valued the use of consciousness and behavior in adjusting to the environment. These fundamentalists based their theory on Darwins’ doctrine of evolution and believed that consciousness function as a entity whose purpose is to allow the organism to adjust to his environment. With the view of functionalist, Skinner (1953) developed his theory of learning on the concept of operantconditioning . He offer the organism operates in the environment doing whatever it does. According to Skinner , while operating, the organisms encounters stimuli to which he referred as reinforcing stimuli.
Cognitive Leaning Theory
A founding father of Cognitive Learning Theory, GagnE (1985) contended that it is more realistic to assume that there are different kinds of learning, arranged in a hierarchy, with one sortbeing the prerequisite for the next. For example, solving an algebraic problem depends on understanding algebraic function, which depends on knowing basic mathematical skills and computations, which depends on recognizing simple numbers and symbols. For GagnE, simple conditioning only provided the basis for more advance kind of learning.
He built on the behaviorist model by adding processing or cognitive component to Skinners’ model. Conceptual Framework For a better understanding of the study, the conceptual framework is presented in the paradigm below which consist of independent and dependent variables. Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study The research paradigm of the study in figure 1 has the dependent variables which consist of the subjects, materials and classrooms. While the independent variables consist of the alternative teaching method and traditional teaching method.
Definition of Terms
To provide the readers a better way of understanding of the study used by the researchers, the following terms are operationally defined: Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches toteaching and learning other than mainstream or traditional education. Progressive education The term "progressive" was engaged to distinguish this education from the traditionalcurriculum of the 19th century, which was rooted in classical preparation for the university and strongly differentiated by socioeconomic level. Rote learning is a memorization technique based on repetitionThe idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it. Some of the alternatives to rote learning include meaningful learningassociative learning, and active learning. Traditional Education is a simple oral reading: In a typical approach, students sat quietly at their places and listened to one individual after another reading his or her lesson, until each had been called upon.
Review Of Related Literature And Studies
This chapter consist of the review of related literature and related studies.
Traditional Teaching Methods According to Paredes (2000), effective teaching must have tools and devices to carry on effective learning situations. One of these devices is the instructional materials which should guide the teachers in their daily teaching activities long range in dispensable to good teaching. According to Theroux (2005), Learning is chiefly associated within the class room and is often competitive. The lesson’s content and delivery are considered to be the most important and students master knowledge through drills and practice (such as rot learning).
According to Johnson (2003), traditional teaching emphasizes the mastery of symbols and procedures similar to the teaching of mathematics. In learning mathematics, what happens often is that a teacher emphasizes the learning of the answers more that the exploration of questions, memory of the expenses of critical thinking, bits and pieces of information instead of understanding in context, recitations over arguments, reading instead of doing. Basically, the teachers fails to encourage the students to use modern instruments to extend their intellectual capabilities.
According to Spady (2010)Transitional outcome-based education lies in the twilight zone between traditional subject matter curriculum structures and planning processes and the future-role priorities inherent in transformational OBE. Districts go through incorporation, integration, and redefinition stages in implementing transitional OBE. Transformational OBE's guiding vision is that of competent future citizen. According to Rose (2005), the primary school students taught by a method known as synthetic phonics learn to read faster than those taught by other methods.
Alternative Teaching Methods According to Feistritzer(2003), Alternative teacher certification programs (ATEP) refers to non-traditional methods that an individual may use to become licensed to teach other than the common approach of graduating from a college university with a decree in education. According to Cabrera (2004)Motivational Systems Theory (MST; M. Ford, 1992) was used as a framework to investigate how varying motivational patterns influence faculty members use of teaching practices in their undergraduate classes.
Researchers compared the factors associated with faculty members assigning students to work in groups to solve ill-defined design problems with their use of traditional lecture and textbook problem set assignments. The study hypothesized that faculty members use of teaching practices is a function of their backgrounds, training, experiences, teaching goals, beliefs in their own skills, and their perceptions of the extent to which their organizations provide adequate rewards and resources for teaching.
The total sample for the analysis, 426, represented 61% of the population of tenured and tenure-track engineering faculty at 3 universities. Participants completed a seven-section instrument that gathered information about teaching practices and beliefs. Findings indicate that faculty members own goals for teaching and beliefs about their own professional skills are strongly associated with the extent to which they use traditional teaching practices or group design projects.
According to Goodman (2007), Expanding on the original "Miscue Inventory," this book examines various miscue analysis procedures and discusses how they provide teachers with effective methods for understanding and measuring students' reading processes. Materials According to Davis (2013)Schools nationwide are transitioning "Common Core Literacy Lesson Plans: Ready-to-Use Resources, 9-12," shows you that teaching the Common Core State Standards in high school doesn't have to be intimidating.
This easy-to-use guide meets the particular needs of high school teachers. It provides model lesson plans for teaching the standards in reading, writing, speaking/listening, and language. Get engaging lesson plans that are grade-appropriate for teens, easy to implement, and include ready-to-use reproducible handouts, assessments, resources, and ideas to help you modify the lesson for both struggling and advanced learners. According to Thomas (2004), a “Post? Enron” annotated bibliography of resources for accounting professors who wish to either design a stand? lone course in accounting ethics or who wish to integrate a significant component of ethics into traditional courses across the curriculum. Many of the resources listed are recent, but some are classics that have withstood the test of time and still contain valuable information. The resources listed include texts and reference works, commercial books, academic and professional articles, and electronic resources such as film and Internet websites. Resources are listed by subject matter, to the extent possible, to permit topical access.
Some observations about course design, curriculum content, and instructional methodology are made as well. According to Karssenberg, Burrough and Sluiter (2002), Teaching numerical modeling in the environmental sciences not only needs good software and course material but also an understanding of how to program the models in the computer. Conventional environmental modeling procedures require computer science and programming skills, which may detract from the important understanding of the environmental processes involved.
An alternative strategy is to build a generic toolkit or modeling language that operates with concepts and operations that are familiar to the environmental scientist. Classroom According to Bronfenbrenner (2007) Classroom environment encompasses a broad range of educational concepts, including the physical setting, the psychological environment created through social contexts, and numerous instructional components related to teacher characteristics and behaviors. The study classroom environment has been widespread across nearly all sub-specializations of educational psychology.
Researchers are interested in relationships between environment constructs and multiple outcomes, including learning, engagement, motivation, social relationships, andgroup dynamics. Early researchers recognized that behavior is a function of people's personal characteristics and their environment. According to Soby (20011), when students have been asked to describe effective classroom managers, researchers report that these are teachers who set clear expectations and consequences early in the year.
They also describe teachers who consistently (and predictably) follow through with consequences, as opposed to merely threatening consequences. These characteristics appear essential in establishing good classroom environment in terms of social support and mutual respect. Additionally, the amount of time a teacher spends in teaching organizational behaviors impacts the classroom environment. According to the Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study (QSRLS 2001). makes specific reference to supportive classroom environments as one of four general dimensions of its Productive Pedagogies framework.
Table 1 shows the five elements of this key dimension. While not all learning environment researchers would accept that Explicit Quality Performance Criteria is a bona fide psychosocial construct, the QSRLS shows that learning environment is a focus of contemporary thinking on school reform. Clearly the concept of environment is important and powerful. Teachers relate to the concept - it is not an esoteric abstraction created by researchers for researchers. According to Chavez (2004), Fraser (2001), 1994, Genn (2004) suggest that here are three general approaches to the assessment of learning environments: the use of trained observers to code events, usually in terms of explicit phenomena; the use of student and teacher perceptions obtained through questionnaire administration; and the use of ethnographic data collection methods. In general, the first two approaches have relied on quantitative data collection methods and statistical analyses. Indeed, classroom environment research has a history of psychometric approaches employing cross sectional ex post facto research designs.
As discussed later in this paper, much classroom environment of the past 30 years has focused on the development and validation of instruments to assess specific dimensions of the classroom environment. Subjects According to Silberman (2010), practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the subject matter.
There are techniques for full-class and small-group instruction, and methods for reviewing and assessing what students have learned. Although most of the strategies will apply to any age level, the book is directed at those who teach older children and adults, especially teachers in middle school, high school, college, and adult education centers. Related Studies Traditional Teaching Methods According to Pack (2003),Although the use of technology in web-based forms of higher education has grown exponentially in the past decade, it is becoming increasingly obvious that traditional university teaching can also benefit from its advantages.
Universities all over Europe invest heavily in course management software, expanded networks, and training and support capabilities to introduce web enhancements to traditional courses. There are at least two fundamental reasons that justify this increased investment. The first is that university education has a responsibility to ensure that future graduates are well versed in the use of ICTs, since, in a knowledge economy, such technologies are an indispensable tool of everyday life in the world of work they hope to enter.
There can hardly be a single profession or area of academic endeavor, in which progress is possible without recourse to technology, at some level. This in itself would justify efforts made to ensure the omnipresence of ICTs in universities, the incorporation of specific ICT skills subjects as for instance, he suggested, and indeed efforts to ensure a cross sectional approach by sharing ICT training among all subjects. This reason is obvious: in the knowledge society, ICTs are everywhere, and must therefore be present in university education.
According to Hattie (2011)The role of the constructivist teacher is claimed to be more of facilitation to provide opportunities for individual students to acquire knowledge and construct meaning through their own activities. Alternative Teaching Methods According to Sandholthz and Haymore (2007), Teachers are responsible for juggling knowledge of where students are and where they need to go; having insights into students' special needs and progress; choices of curricular activities and materials; rules that govern children's participation; expectations from parents and communities; and the norms and rules that govern them as teachers.
The addition of technology further complicates the equation and presents many new questions. This book provides information based on 10 years of data gathered from the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) project. Started in 1985, ACOT is a research collaboration between universities, public schools, and Apple Computer, Inc. to investigate the results of teachers and children routinely using technology for learning. According to Calderheads (2007),The origins of the “reflective teaching” concept are explored.
It is suggested that the term has been interpreted and defined in numerous ways, with contrasting implications for the design of teacher education programs. It is argued that the concept requires further examination in the light of empirical research on teaching and how teachers learn to teach, and that existing research on teacher cognitions, teachers' knowledge, and the context of teachers' learning has potential to extend our understanding of the role of reflection in teacher education.
According to Payne (2005), Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, and assessment of learner performance. Computer-managed instruction (CMI) aids the instructor in instructional management without actually doing the teaching. Central CMI themes discussed in the literature are individualization, behavioral objectives, and educational technology.
The main objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two teaching strategies: CMI versus the traditional lecture method. The learning objectives were based on specified theoretical content from a Health Assessment course for baccalaureate nursing students. The design of the study was quasi-experimental incorporating two experimental treatments applied to two groups on two occasions. Data analysis addresses differences between groups using CMI and the traditional lecture method.
The variables examined were the cognitive performance of learners, the learner's attitude toward the instructional strategy, the learner's retention of knowledge, the time involved in mastering the learning objectives, and the relationship between learner characteristics and the effectiveness of the instructional strategy. Materials Thompson (2002) and Resnick and Omanson (2007) reported that using base-ten blocks had little effect on upperprimary students' understanding or use of their already-memorized wholenumber addition and subtraction algorithms.
According to Cohen (2009), New perspectives are considered provided the educator, due to the redefinition of such terms as "reading" and "intelligence," the distinction of "learning readiness" from "reading readiness," and the selection of theoretical models on which the study is based. Methods, source materials, and classroom floor plans are provided for the intermediate and junior high school levels. According to Wolf (2006), When carefully conceived, portfolios can significantly advance a teacher's professional growth and preserve evidence of exemplary teaching.
More than a scrapbook or steamer trunk of eye-catching materials, a teaching portfolio is an ongoing, collaborative process that carefully and thoughtfully documents a set of accomplishments attained over an extended period. Classroom According to Taylor and Francis (2010), Examining the extent, nature, and scope of peer group influence on academic outcomes is an important direction for future research to enrich our understanding of adolescent motivation, engagement, and achievement. Conceptual and methodological issues involved in studying peer groups are discussed.
Existing research that addresses the influence of peer groups on academic outcomes is reviewed. Processes of how peer groups socialize achievement beliefs and behaviors are considered. According to Goodland (2004), Based on "A Study of Schooling," an extensive on-the-scene investigation of classrooms across the country, the suggestions for significant improvement begin with the premise that the schools must be redesigned piece by piece. All aspects of schooling are considered, including curriculum, school/community relations, quality of teaching, time spent by students on a task, and instructional methods.
According to Knapp (2005), Actual practices uncovered in a 2-year investigation of 140 classrooms in a variety of high-poverty school settings are described and analyzed in a comprehensive demonstration of what meaning-oriented instruction can achieve among children for whom basic skills instruction has been the target. Subjects According to Grossman (2009), understanding subject-matter differences among high school teachers is crucial for the analysis and reform of secondary schools.
An emerging line of research suggests that high school teachers belong to distinctive subject subcultures; these subcultures are characterized by differing beliefs, norms, and practices. We report findings from surveys and interviews with high school teachers that illustrate salient aspects of subject subcultures. Shared beliefs about the possibilities and constraints posed by different school subjects may complicate efforts to restructure high schools or redesign curriculum.
According to Lunati (2001), it is important to help teachers to reconsider their disciplinary knowledge and to work with other teachers on the same subject to make it suitable for teaching. It was implemented with a small group of teachers who reflected on physics subjects with a view to developing a plan of work in their classroom. A continuous debate on the activity was carried out via electronic mail, discussing the students' reactions and the effectiveness of the teaching strategy employed.
The method and tools used by the group in analyzing the case of friction are reported, together with the results obtained in a first trial of the approach.
The researchers made the study at Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna. Map of Los Banos Laguna The Respondents The first respondent is Steven John R. Reyes. Twenty six years old. From Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna. He graduated from Laguna State Polytechnic University Sta. Cruz Campus. The second respondent is Jayson Torio. Thirty four years old. He is from Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna. The third respondent is Nonylon T. Dequilla. Thirty three years old. He is from Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna. The fourth respondent isStephanie L. Calcutan. Twenty six tears old. She is from Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna And lastly, the fifth respondent is Mr. Dave Aaron V. Hernandez. Twenty five years old. And he is also from Brgy. Tuntungin-Putho Los Banos, Laguna.
The researchers used some procedure in making the study about traditional and alternative teaching. First, The researchers began by suggesting three topics which was presented to the thesis adviser for approval. After the approval of suggested topics. Next is the presentation of questionnaire. The prepared questionnaires will be answered by the teachers who uses different kinds of teaching method. After that, The researchers began to interview some teachers and let them answer the prepared questionnaires. The answers of the respondents had been tabulated and tallied. The Variables
The two kinds of teaching methods which consist of the traditional teaching method and the alternative teaching method is indicated in the independent variables. In traditional teaching method it refers to long-established customs found in schools that society has traditionally deemed appropriate. While in alternative teaching method, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, includes a number of approaches to teaching and learning other than mainstream or traditional education The materials, subjects and the classrooms are indicated in the dependent variables.
The materials used in traditional teaching methods are textbooks , lectures and individual written assignments. While the materials used in alternative teaching are any available resource including internet, library and outside experts. The subjects in traditional approach are individual and independent subjects while in alternative are integrated, interdisciplinary subject or theme-based units. In terms of classrooms, the students in traditional approach are matched by age. While in alternatives are multi-age classrooms or open classrooms.
The group conducted a research work regarding “Traditional and Alternative Teaching Methods”, has used the descriptive design with questionnaires relative to this study as the main source of gathering data and informations to come up with a clear and understandable solutions to the subjects of this work. The objective and goal of this study is to have a concrete and systematic informations that will help the students to acquire knowledge in the easiest what to provide them with good values of teaching method in any school the students prefer. Research Instruments
The self-made questionnaire in the form of checklist was utilized as instrument to gather data and information. The questionnaire was about the traditional and alternative teaching methods and how it affects the teachers who used this as a guide in teaching.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The data gathered from the questionnaires were tallied and tabulated and statistically treated in order to determine the effects of using the alternative and traditional teaching methods in some teachers. Two-way Anova X2=5? R- 3N(K+1)NK(K+1) Where: X= two way anova R= rank N= numbers of rows K= scale Validation of Research Instructions Ascited on “Education Resources Information Center by Rita (1994). A developmental research, as opposed to simple instruction development, has been defined as the systematic study of designing, developing, and evaluating instructional programs, processes, and products that must meet criteria of internal consistency and effectiveness. Developmental research is particularly important in the field of instructional technology.
The most common types of developmental research involve situations in which the product development process is analyzed and described, and the final product is evaluated. A second type of developmental research focuses more on the impact of the product on the learner or the organization. A third type of study is oriented toward a general analysis of design development or evaluation processes as a whole or as components. A fundamental distinction should be made between eports of actual developmental research (practice) and descriptions of design and development procedural models (theory). Although it has frequently been misunderstood, developmental research has contributed much to the growth of the field as a whole, often serving as a basis for model construction and theorizing. Sampling Procedure A questionnaire was validated by the researcher and asked the permission to conduct study, the researcher make a questionnaire. The teachers of Los Banos are selected to answer the questionnaire which were analyzed and evaluated.
Result of the Interview
This diagram was presented the result of the teachers who interviewed. The blue represents the alternative method while the represents the traditional teaching methods. And it means that many teachers want to use the modern teaching method than the traditional teaching method because this generation the modern technology is using to teach the students. Scoring and Interpretation of Data In developing the proposed teaching method, various steps of data gathering were conducted.
An interview with the students was conducted in order to get the information needed for developing teaching method, reference like books, manual, pamphlets in surfing the internet were also done to create ideas necessary for development of the teaching method. The questionnaire checklists were given to therespondents for the teaching evaluation. And the filled-up questionnaire-checklists were collected for analysis and interpretation. The respondents answered the questionnaires based on their perception in terms of the Teaching method: Traditional or Modern usability.
Now many teachers do not understand which one of them is better in the learning process. Which is useful method in this era between traditional teaching methods and modern teaching methods or both of them? Traditional teaching methods and modern teaching methods have many differences and similarities. Our society these days are divided into two different way of thinking on the education. Some believe that modern teaching methods are better than the traditional teaching method of teaching but yet these two methods are both successful way.
Every method in teaching is the same for they deliver the same message to the students. The traditional methods are that teaches shouldered too much of responsibilities for teaching in the classroom to make sure everything they thought were understood by the student. Thus it was a good method, where there was efficient communication between teacher and students. There was also the typical way and a controllable class where the teacher would teach on the blackboard, explained, asks students to copy and made sure students paid attention and listen.
The traditional way in disciplining students in school and teaching them was an effective way in building a good characteristics student were afraid of their teacher and respect them. In modern method students are aware of their learning process through the computers. Thus with the help of computers teachers prepare their work in their thumb drive and present to the class through slides show which is an easier way.
And students can do their studying and their work all in the computer without depending 100% on their teacher in schools. (Traditional teaching and Modern teaching method, 2008 ). Traditional teaching is concerned with the teacher being the controller of the learning environment. Power and responsibility are held by the teacher and they play the role of instructor (in the form of lectures) and decision maker (in regards to curriculum content and specific outcomes).
They regard students as having “knowledge holes” that need to be filled with information. In short , the traditional teacher views that it is the teacher that causes learning to occur (Novak, 1998). Learning is chiefly associated within the classroom and is often competitive. The lesson’s content and delivery are considered to be most important and students master knowledge through drill and practice (such as rote learning). Content need not be learned in context (Theroux 2002, Johnson ; Johnson 1991).
Teacher can use both of them and sure, they have advantage and disadvantage by using them. One of the examples in using traditional methods is when the teacher cannot use modern teaching activities in the learning process when in the region that not support. Teacher can collaborate both of traditional teaching activities methods and modern teaching methods in the learning activities.
- Cruz Laguna A. Y 2012-2013 Methods of Teaching: Traditional and Alternative (Term Paper) Submitted by: Leader: Ailyn Fernandezsubmitted to: Members: Jerico BombasiProfessor Consignado Bernalyn Idian Jaylo Malison Mark Christian Ranes Bibliography A. Internet/ websites http://jom. sagepub. com/content/13/2/419. short http://arzelonline. wordpress. com/2012/06/25/are-traditional-teaching-methods-still-effective/
- http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Traditional_education http://ehlt. flinders. edu. au/education/DLiT/2002/environs/scott/tradteac. htm
- http://www. slideshare. net/heriwinarko21/traditional-teaching-method-vs-now-11515538
- http://www. ontana. edu/teachlearn/Papers/activelearn2. html http://info. lecturetools. com/blog/? Tag=traditional%20teaching%20methods
- http://www. scribd. com/doc/36519204/Traditional-Teaching-Strategies-Lecturing
- http://schools-education. knoji. com/five-alternative-teaching-strategies-for-professors/
- http://www. facultyfocus. com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/effective-teaching-strategies-six-keys-to-classroom-excellence/
- http://familymed. uthscsa. edu/ACE/chapter5.
- htm http://som. unm. edu/ume/ted/pdf/ed_dev/gen_teach_strategies. pdf
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