Last Updated 23 Mar 2023

Weather anomalies very challenging

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Nino weather anomalies very challenging. (10)Countries in the Monsoon climatic region of SE & S Asia depend on the rains that come with the precision of Calender dates (due to the precise dates of Sun's seasonal shift as per Calender dates). It is essential for their agriculture, where countries with huge populations have to feed them, made possible with assured crops. Any variation in timing ; rainfall quantum affects their crop production adversely. It also leads to unforeseen flooding caused by excessive rains (other environmental factors ike soil erosion aiding it) that washes out the crops.

Monsoon is created by the Sea surface temperature variation (Pacific Ocean largely) as per Calender dates. El Nino refers to the unusual, unseasonal warming of the equatorial currents of the Pacific Ocean that upsets Monsoon. We all know how huge is this Ocean and how very broad (about 10000 miles) it is at its Equator; its sheer volume of water absorbs the solar heat energy and acts like an engine for the Monsoon. It is a challenge to these countries. Modellig it mathematically (an exercise in atmospheric Physics) is one of the most complicated problems with an innumerable set of parametrs ; that is a challenge.

India bought the first 'Cray' Super-Computer for its meteorological department that can give accuarte predictio(a) Suggest why many countries find El Nino weather anomalies very challenging. (10) El Nino is referring to the dramatic change that occurs in the walker circulation cell and in other areas but I am going to focus on this specific area, where the usually outh-easterly trade winds going from west of South America to Australia and Indonesia across the Pacific Ocean reverse or severely weaken.

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This occurs usually every 3-7 years and can last between 12-18 months. During an El Nino the warm sea in the western pacific migrate towards the South American coast because they are being dragged across by the winds. This stops the upwelling near South America and means that there are little nutrients in the sea. This lack of nutrients ruins the South American fishing industry and courses them to loose lots of income and money, for xample in 1982/83 El Nino the South American fishing industry lost $290 million.

Also as you can sea from fgure 7 there is lots of rain fall on the west coast of South America due to the low pressure, this heavy rain fall cause severe flooding and mudslides that result in loss of life, an example of this was in central Ecuador and Peru in 1997 when it suffered rainfall 10 times the average rainfall, this caused extensive flooding and erosion as well as mudslides, there was loss of life and destruction of property as the country wasn't able to cope with the severe weather.

On the other side of the pacific in Australia and Indonesia the cold weather reduces evaporation, which causes very little rain and therefore drought, for example in the 1982/83 El Nino eastern Australia suffered one of it's worst drought ever, resulting in a $2000 million loss in agriculture production. It causes crop failure and famine and many people died as a result.

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