The Utilization of Organic Waste Materials for Biofuel Production A Research Paper Presented to Professor Janet Clemente Mapua Institute of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English for Academic Purposes 2 (ENG11) by Hazel Joy H. Arellano Al Joseph R. Jimeno February 2012 Abstract The increasing criticism of the first-generation biofuel has raised the potential of the so-called second-generation biofuel. These include any organic industrial, commercial, domestic and agricultural wastes. These residues and by-products is a potential feedstock in the production of this biofuel.
This paper will attempt to determine the different potential impacts of the second generation biofuel on the society compare to the first generation biofuel and what would be the possible outcome if this was continuously used. An interview was conducted at the Department of Biomass, DOE, on the director of the said department, Andresito Ulgado. It contributed a lot on the progress of this research. As we go through this research, biofuel from organic waste materials has potential on economic, environment and social impact.
This really provides benefits on the economy of a country and reduces dependency of foreign fuels. In terms of the environmental impact, these biofuels doesn’t hundred percent lessen the environmental problems but rather it could develop new environmental problems. The quality of the soil may be greatly affected and may lead to soil erosion and a lot of water can be wasted because crops plantation demands a lot of water. But this biofuel can lessen greenhouse gases and CO2. On social impact, these biofuel could provide and opened new jobs like biomass transportation, biomass collection and a lot, but jobs are limited.
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In other words, these biofuel has positive impact on the economy of a country and socially but not contribute hundred percent on the environment. To the future researchers, these topic is a great thing to research on, maybe they could research on how extensive these biofuels from organic waste materials is used in a specific country or in the world. " ... we generate a lot of waste and this is a potential feedstock for biofuel production... But, I believe this is a potential one. " - A. Ulgado The production of biofuels has been rapidly increasing over the last decades but these biofuels has raised some important concerns.
In particular, first generation biofuels from staple foods has been very controversial regarding its negative impact in the society, blamed to cause deforestation, displacement of food crops and increases the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. For biofuels to be truly sustainable they need to be produce without affecting the food production. So, scientists are developing fuel out of anything, from organic waste and rotting garbage. These organic wastes are potential feedstock for second generation biofuels. Sustainable biofuel from organic waste materials will provide benefits compared to first-generation biofuels.
These are expected to provide advantages and implications in the economy, environment and social life. The researchers came with this stand because of the continuous unprecedented high price of fossil fuels and the controversies that first-generation biofuels faced, which has a negative effect on the society. As Andresito Ulgado, director of the Department of Biomass, stated, we generate a lot of waste and from this, we can produce biofuels. But since these second-generation biofuels are not yet commercialized, there are possibilities that these are less effective compared to fossil fuels and have limited applications.
These biofuels are seen as a commercial risk because these will require complex logistics system and good infrastructure. Financing these projects would be very costly for it will require ten times as much capital as a first generation plant of the same capacity. This research paper will focus on the benefits of biofuel from organic waste materials on economy, environment and social life. The researchers will find out why these biofuels are expected to resolve all the problems that the first generation biofuel have. The biofuel gives us sustainable alternatives and is renewable.
In the next twenty-five years, it is believe that the world market, which is our primary source of imported fuel like fossil fuel will run out soon. That is why biofuels in the form of liquid fuels derive from plant materials are entering the market driven by factors such as oil price hikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of this biofuel that are currently supplied has been criticized for the adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use-these are the first generation biofuels or the biofuel from staple foods.
Most of our neighboring countries use biofuel from staple foods like corns and rice. But in the Philippines, the Biofuel Act of 2006, specifically says that corn, rice, and other staple foods cannot be used for biofuel production instead sugarcane and coconut oil is used because of the surplus production of oil and sugar here in the Philippines. Due to the increasing criticism of the sustainability of many first generation biofuel, scientists are trying to make better use of crop residues and by-products by converting into the next generation biofuel.
These includes any solid, liquid, and gaseous fuel produced either directly from plants or indirectly from organic, industrial, commercial, domestic, or agricultural waste- or the so-called Second Generation Biofuel. The challenge is to support the biofuel development including the development of new cellulose technologies with the responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. These biofuels will not only help the earth reduce greenhouse gases, toxics, and pollution but it will also help our economic status.
Utilizing the second generation biofuel will resolve the issue regarding on food production, provides energy security, reduce dependence on foreign source of oil and other fuels, and economic boost for agriculture and industry. Over the last decade, the production of the first generation biofuel has been questioned about its negative impact on food production because it consumes almost three-fourths of the agriculture sector, which is tending to use for food plantation. Due to the demand of land, food production has greatly affected resulting to food shortage and price hikes.
But not as like as the first generation biofuel, the second generation has nothing to do with the deflation on food production because all it need is the residues from the crops harvested, basically the crops will be still useful especially on foods. When agriculture land is only tend for food production therefore there would be a large-scale production of crops and the more crops that is being produced, the more residues can be get from it in order to produce a large-scale production of biofuels, too. A large-scale production of a country will ensure and provide energy security within its territory which lessens worriness.
Replacing petroleum because of its prices on the rise, with a renewable energy source will reduce from importing these oil products. Biofuel were seen as substitutes for gasoline and petroleum-based diesel, the idea that these can reduce dependency on fossil fuels has led the government to promote it. In the Philippines, two percent of biodiesel were added to diesel and ten percent of bioethanol in gasoline which only proves that the utilization of biofuel reduces the dependency of the country on fossil fuel.
As Andresito Ulgado, director of the Department of Biomass, DOE mentioned that the government has been looking at increasing the blend of biodiesel to three to five percent and twenty percent of bioethanol. He emphasized that there are considerations need to be considered especially to those who use vehicles twenty years older. There are cases in which these vehicles cannot use high blend of biofuel. However, the government is looking forward at maximizing biofuels so that the country can minimize its dependency on imported fuels.
And importing fuel on other countries has fluctuated dramatically in most emerging and developing countries over the past several years. Thus, if use in the domestic markets the second generation could contribute to reduced expenditures for imports. In this case we can save a lot of our foreign currency savings and if we exported some of our biofuel products to other countries especially for those countries which really uses biofuels, these could really boost our economy, which figuratively means that there are more jobs to be offered, from the farming industry to the transportation production.
Biofuels before had faced controversies regarding its negative impact on the environment. A new study by economists at Oregon State University questions the cost-effectiveness of biofuels. Bill Jaeger, the lead author of the study, points out that the biofuels increase the greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels were initially seen as a solution to energy and environmental problems because the carbon dioxide that's emitted when they're burned is equivalent to what they had absorbed from the atmosphere when the crops were growing.
Therefore, biofuels were assumed to add little or no carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. But the bigger picture is more complex in part because biofuels are produced and transported using fossil fuels. Depending on the feedstock choice and the cultivation techniques, second-generation biofuels production utilizes wastes and residues. These include organic waste materials which are generated from agricultural facilities, forestry mills and in urban areas. In urban areas, organic wastes include portions of municipal solid waste, grass clippings and land clearing activities.
Second-generation biofuels provide environmental impact depending on different aspects: land, water, climate change and biodiversity. Lands before were used for production of crops intended for biofuels causing negative impacts like affecting food production and rising food prices. Unlike first-generation biofuels, utilizing organic wastes and residues has a minimal direct impact on food production for it will no longer require lands. Furthermore, it will help lessens the problems of disposing.
These will also reduce the problems in clearing fields. Clearing of fields, which requires burning will not be a problem anymore because the waste will become feedstock for the production of fuel. Therefore, these will cause significant reductions in air pollution. In some soil, removal of waste and residue can be sustainable and beneficial for some crops as it may help control pests and diseases, increase soil temperature in spring facilitating spring germination (Andrews, 2008).
However, removing residues on soil could reduce the soil quality, promote erosion and lead to a loss of carbon, which, in turn, low production of crops. Future production of second-generation biofuels will also have an impact on water. The increasing demands for biofuel produced from organic waste will increase the pressure on clean water resources. Since there is a demand for biofuel, then there is also a demand for organic waste materials and most of the wastes are produced from crops. These will require large quantities of water to grow certain feedstock.
The use of residues may have negative or positive impacts on biodiversity. As compared to the first-generation biofuels, the use of agricultural and forestry wastes are expected to have a lower impact on biodiversity. However, these will reduce the amount of decaying wood and could thus cause reductions in habitats and disturbance of wildlife due to increased forest access. There is also a possibility that native forests will be turned into plantation to increase the supply, which in turn, reduces plant biodiversity.
In terms of reducing lifecycle carbon emissions, second-generation biofuels appear to have higher greenhouse gas mitigation compared to first-generation. These second-generation biofuels could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 90% relative to fossil fuels. However, these results have been calculated for theoretical biofuel production concepts that are only just at the pilot /demonstration stage and not yet operating on a commercial stage (OECD, 2008). Another impact of these second generation biofuels to the society is its potential to provide livelihood to mankind.
Most commentators believe that the development of bioenergy industry in a region will provide jobs, and that bioenergy and biofuels enterprises can become important opportunities for improving rural economies in both developed and developing countries. Job creation and regional growth are considered as two of the main social driven for the implementation of biofuel project. For second generation biofuel, there are new job opportunities along the entire pathway from biomass production or collection, to biomass transport, biomass handling, conversion and finally product distribution.
In Europe, predictions estimate that the increase in energy provided from biofuel production could result in the creation of over 515,000 new jobs by 2020 taking into account the direct, and indirect subsidy effects of employment, and the jobs displaced in conventional energy technologies. Selling forestry by-products or residues would be beneficial for the 12 million people that live in or near to the forests of Mexico. The added value to forestry products could also reduce the high deforestation rate in Mexico, since deforestation often results from the absence of economic alternatives. IEA, 2010) Though there are a lot of new jobs opened, some of these are limited. Like for example, the collection of agricultural and forestry residue could also be done by the same workers involved in the main agricultural and forestry products. Downstream processes like biomass transport and conversion may offer more jobs considering the increasing demand of biomass for biofuel production but these will require more qualified workers given the complexity of second-generation biofuel technology.
Skilled engineers to manage plant operations and oversee complex production processes are relatively difficult to find since unskilled and cheap labour force is abundant in developing countries. Just like what Andresito Ulgado said, if we will be reviving our rural economy, there will be an effect not only to those who are working in the biofuel production facility but same as through to the people around us because there will be a triggering effect. An example is if there is a plant in a certain area then there would be also a demand for that certain product in that particular production facility.
If there would be a biofuel plantation in a certain area then there is a demand for fuel in which more job opportunities can be offered. Biofuels have been receiving greater attention in the recent years from researchers, industrialists, environmentalists, and national governments across the world. But over the past decades linkages between biofuels from staple foods and agriculture market, same as through to the environment has been analysed. Therefore scientists are trying to produce the next generation biofuel out of organic waste to meet the high demand of the fuel consumers.
This will be a great help since the world market, where we are import our fuel, will be run out soon. These biofuels from organic waste is not just an alternative source of energy but can also contribute to our economic status, environment and even provide livelihood for the people. Economic impacts include reducing dependency on fossil fuels, provide energy security, generate foreign savings, economic boost and resolve issues regarding the food production. They appear to have higher greenhouse gas mitigation compared to first-generation biofuels.
Thus, these fuels can reduce the lifecycle carbon emission. However, in some aspects of the environment, these have negative impacts in which utilizing organic waste lessens the fertility of soil, consumes a large quantity of water and affects the biodiversity. For second generation biofuel, there are new jobs along the entire pathway from biomass production or collection, to biomass transport, biomass handling, conversion and finally product distribution. More jobs can be offered since there is a demand in the supply of residues and wastes.
But there are some cases in which more skilled and qualified workers are needed to manage the biofuel plantation given the complexity of second-generation biofuel technologies. We generate a lot of organic waste and residues and these are available as feedstock for biofuel production. There are possibilities that these will enter the domestic market on the next twenty years. The reason why it was not yet commercialized is because of the expensive technology that will be used in converting these wastes into a more useful one.
Another factor that are seen into this biofuel is it helps on our economic status especially on food production and in saving up more foreign currency because we will no longer importing fossil fuels from other countries and can boost our agriculture and industry. On environment that can reduce CO2 and can provide new livelihood to other people. In other words, these biofuel will result into a more progress, more eco-friendly and more stable world.
Utilizing these will reduce issues on food production and greenhouse gases, providing benefits in the society. Therefore, sustainable biofuel from organic waste will provide and probably will provide the source of energy in the future. REFERENCES Biofuel for transport: global potential and implication for sustainable and agriculture London; Sterling VA: Earthscan, c2007 Biofuel John Tabak PH. d 2009 Biofuel Economics in a Setting of Multiple Objectives and Unintended Consequences William K.
Jaeger and Thorsten M. Egelkraut Oregon State University (2011) Sustainable Production of Second-Generation Biofuels Anselm Eisentraut 2010 February Second-Generation Biofuels Miguel A. Carriquiry, Xiaodong Du, GovindaTimilsina The World Bank Development Research Group Environment and Energy Team August 2019 From 1st to 2nd-Generation Biofuel Technologies Ralph Sims, Michael Taylor Jack Saddler, WarenMabee c OECD/IEA, November 2008 Second Generation Biofuels – Greenergy Perspectives March 2011 http://www. iea. rg/papers/2010/second_generation_biofuels. pdf http://www. thebrokeronline. eu/Articles/Driving-on-organic-waste Biofuel in Perspective W. Soetaert and Erick J. Vandame 2008 Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for biofuels in the USA Matthew T. Carr Jane R. Tettubars 2008 Biomass Digestive to methane in Agriculture: A Sucessful Pathway for the Production and Waste Treatment Worldwide P. Weiland W. Verstraete A. Van Haardel 2008 Biofuels Act Review Urged (journal) www. iea. org/papers/2010/second gen. biofuel. pdf
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