The movement that the paper shall discuss is the ‘hammer throw’ “The modern or Olympic hammer throw is an athletic throwing event where the object to be thrown is a heavy steel ball attached with wire (maximum 4 ft (1.22 m) to a handle.” (Farlex Inc., 2007, p.1) The objective of the feat is throwing the steel ball at the farthest distance. “The two most important factors for a far throw are the angle of release and the speed of the ball.” (Farlex Inc., 2007, p.1)
For an athlete, it is important for them to be aware of every muscle movement that happens during the process of hammer throw. These phases are important for a smooth transition of muscles from one stage to another to execute a correct and efficient movement. The next part will highlight the five phases involved in hammer throw. In particular, the following phases will determine the relevant muscles involved in the process.
The first phase involves the stance phase. There is minimal amount of movement in this phase that is why muscles remain at status quo. “Due to the minimal amount of movement in this phase, the majority muscle position maintenance throughout the body should be accomplished through isometric contraction.” (www.mhhe.com/floyd16e, p.196)
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The next phase involves the preparatory phase. In hammer throw, “concentric contractions occur in their anatagonist muscles in this phase.” (www.mhhe.com/floyd16e, p.196) The joints involved are the shoulder and elbow in which their actions represent a horizontal hyperextension and extension respectively. In addition, the agonists muscles involve in the process are posterior deltoids and latissiumus dorsi and triceps brachii (shoulder and elbow)
The third phase talks about the movement phase. “It is the phase in which the summation of force is generated directly to the ball, sport, object, or opponent, and is usually characterized by near-maximal concentric activity in the involved muscles.” (www.mhhe.com/floyd16e, p.197) With hammer throw, this is the process wherein the person starts rotating the body which is called ‘turns’.
“You must try to utilize inertial forces of the hammer in the single by riding the ball and being passive with the ascending hammer, while avoiding activity with the pelvis and legs.” (Larry, 2000, p. 1) In addition, “After running through the high point of the hammer, you must complete the turn on the ball of the left foot by actively driving back to double support as soon as possible.” (Larry, 2000, p.1)
The next phase involves the follow-through phase. “In this phase, often referred to as the deceleration phase, the velocity of the body segment progressively decreases, usually over a wide range of motion.” In the process of hammer throw, the joints involved are the shoulder and elbow. The actions involved are a horizontal flexion and flexion for the shoulder and elbow respectively. The agonist muscles involved in the process are (1) anterior deltoids and Pectoralis major for the shoulder and (2) biceps brachii for the elbow.
The last phase is the recovery phase. “The recovery phase is used after follow through to regain balance and positioning to be ready for the next sport demand.” (www.mhhe..., p.197) For hammer throw, the individual after the follow through stage slowly goes back to status quo as both muscles in the elbow, shoulder, hips, and legs relax to prepare for the next throw.
In the process of hammer throw, an individual might sustain an injury due to lack of stretching or failure to follow the proper process in hammer throw. Injuries related to hammer throwing include (1) strains, (2) cramps, (3) calf muscle injuries, (4) sprains and (5) elbow and shoulder muscle related injuries. Thus, it is very important for a hammer thrower to constantly warm up for the sport and at the same time follows effectively every step mentioned by the coach for injuries to be prevented.
- Brainmac. Movement Analysis in Sports Coach. Retrieved October 21, 2007 from http://www.brianmac.co.uk/moveanal.htm
- Farlex Inc. (2007) Hammer Throw in The Free Dictionary. Retrieved October 21, 2007 from http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Hammer+throwing
- Judge, L. (2000) A Technique Analysis of the Hammer Throw for Men & Women. Retrieved Kinesiology. Retrieved October 21, 2007 from http://www.mhhe.com/floyd16e
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