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Writing and Reading Should Be Taught Together

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Context Nowadays, in University, scholars need to learn another language besides their own mother tongue. They will like to learn English language which is the second language we can learn.

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As a language, there are a lot of skills which we must learn, such as, reading, writing, listening and speaking. What actually reading is? Reading means the action or skill of reading written or printed matter silently or aloud. Moreover, it is also mean as the process of constructing meaning from written texts.

Hence, it is not a skill that students must learn separately from other processes. Reading skill combines many complex activities include categorizing, building key terms and concepts for a subject, measuring one’s reaction to a subject, making new connections, abstracting, figuring out significance and developing arguments. In learning English Foundation subjects, there are some reasons for us to read. By reading books, we might become an interesting person. This happens because we can use information that we get from books or magazine to impress ourselves to friends or future employers.

Besides, reading also can help us to learn how to write correctly. In this case, we will get good grades and also can impress our future boss who will promote us because we can express ourselves 3 correctly. The next reason for reading is to help us in developing our imagination to write many excellent stories. For doing some event, we also can look up a lot of funny ideas for friends to prepare something outside our expectation. If we read, we can get the information which can take us to some places that we do not know.

For example, when we see newspapers write good articles about travelling places which we have never been before, we will feel interesting to take part in that travel place. There are many types of reading as a second language. The types of reading are divided into two sections, which are reading in oral and reading in silent. In silent reading, it also divided into two as extensive and intensive reading. Extensive reading has three sections which are scanning, skimming and global reading. Scanning reading means we required to use a specific piece of information.

After scanning the passage, the reader will know what the items look like, knows when has located, what was the searching for. It is assumed that very little information is processed into long-term memory or even for immediate understanding because the objective is simply matching. Besides that, skimming reading has more complex task than scanning because it requires the reader to organize and remember some of the information given by the author not just to locate it. In learning the reading skill, we can use different ways to have more effective learning.

We can take reading as realism which mean literature is 4 realistic in one way or another. This is also about the human condition that it is repository of cultural wisdom. When we started to read, we will just focus on things like plot, character, setting and also themes of the material reading. Furthermore, we can make reading as our experience to have it. It is also can help us to think the way how they manipulate experience changes from page to page, moment to moment. We might also focus on experience of particular varieties of readers such as grouped them by age, gender, race, class and place in the world.

To make effective learning in reading, we can help children to select reading materials that match their passions. By asking what is interesting of them, we can choose the book which match to them and make them truly suit for their learning journeys. On top of that, we can also ask children to read aloud their reading materials because usually children are never told to be read in front of the friends or teachers. With reading to children, the most powerful thing is we have to teach the beauty of language, a little grammar and also the meaning of the text.

When we read to children, we can model the love of story and language that compels us in learning how to read. In the other hands, we can see that writing is an activity or a skill of making coherent words on paper and composing text. It also means the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols which also known as a writing system. With some reasons, we need to learn writing in the second language lesson. The first reason is writing can makes 5 us to think more than what usually we speak.

It makes us to think and thoughts are vital in the journey of life because we need to observe, listen, smell, feel, analyze, question, rationalize, appreciate, process, internalize and make conclusion. On top of that, writing can improve our literary skills. For example, if we take time to write out a passage or a book, we will improve our literary skills in some period of time. You can also learn a lot of new words, writing skills and developing the alternative literary forms which from prose to poetry. The next reason we need to learn writing is because it can make us to be disciplined.

This writing skill can disciplined our thoughts in daily routine and also in future life. After we experience the benefits of writing, we will begin to enjoy it. If this happens all the time, it can become a habit, a compulsion and a fascination. Furthermore, writing also can makes us to open the new doors to find new friends, ideas, possibilities, ways to constructively utilize time, and considerations. In writing skills, there are also many types of writing, such as, cause or effect, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, definition, description, narrative, persuasive and analysis process essay.

Cause or effect is an essay about meaningful relationships between events and results. It is also make an event and an effect which happens as a result of that situation. However, comparison/contrast essay is comparing the differences between two or more similar or different things. Definition essay means we write the meaning of 6 something, whereas, in writing description essay, we need to describe all about “painting a picture” with words. On the other hand, narrative writing is to write a story that you would like to share. In writing persuasive essays, we need to convince others by presenting solid and supported arguments.

In a process to make analysis essay, we need to write and explain how to do something or how something is working and also we must think and write what those things can be happen in future life. In learning writing skills, there are some ways to make the writing become more effective. We can list out all the work words. By doing this way, we can list out the “work” words in English verb and also download the complete list “work” words that writers use to enhance their ability to read. Another way to learn writing is how to write a Letter of Intent.

It will help us to learn tips on how to write a professional letter of intent. We also can see the free template and sample of how to write a Letter of Intent. Besides that, we also can learn writing is we study how to write an Executive Summary. In this skill, we can find a lot of unique opportunities to convince the reader that writing can offer the best value proposition and is the best benefit at the lowest cost. To be an effective writer, we need different method in teaching how to write. First of all, we can help students to analyze text by asking them to imagine dialogue between authors.

It is can help students to integrate the ideas of several writers into a single analytical essay by asking them to create a dialogue among 7 those authors. Furthermore, we also can encourage descriptive writing by focusing on the sounds of words. When a teacher read out some sentences for many times, it means he / she lets the students to write out what they have collected from teachers’ reading. In this situation, they may use their own words, borrow from other contributions, add other words which are necessary and change word forms.

We also can use the sharing events of students’ life to inspire writing. For example, when a child comes to school with a fresh haircut or tattered book bag, these events can make them to create a new essay or a new poem by their own. By sharing the events, we can ask the students to write out what actually their mind is thinking that time or inspire some ideas related to the events. 1. 2 Options We have prepared three different research papers which are explaining about different methods in teaching English language, in this situation we can say for teaching English Foundation class.

These can be used by the lecturers to teach their scholars to prepare their assignment for continuing their degree program. Here are the three options, which are : 1. 2. 1 Reading then Writing 1. 2. 2 Writing then Reading 1. 2. 3 Reading and Writing Should be Taught Together 8 1. 3 Thesis Statements In the University, the lecturers still thinking which is the best method they need to use for teaching syllabus. Normally, lecturers will use teaching scholars reading skills then following by teaching writing skills. This happens because they think scholars will become more effective in writing their assignment.

Besides that, lecturers also will use the method of teaching writing skills then reading skills. If they use this method, they believe that the scholars will become an expert reader. Now, we choose the research paper which is explaining about Reading and Writing Should be Taught Together because we strongly recommend this method to be used in University English Foundation Class. 1. 4 Linking Sentence to Chapter II Now, let us think which one is the best teaching method in reading and writing skills for school and university students. Is teaching reading skills should be taught first then followed by teaching writing skills?

Or is teaching writing skills should be taught first then followed by teaching reading skills? Or are both reading and writing skills should be taught together in schools and universities. 9 CHAPTER II MAIN DISCUSSION 2. 1 Reading then Writing According to Joelle Brummitt-Yale, who is a certified teacher (BA in English and a M. Ed. in Middle Grades Language Arts) and has 10 years experience in public school education. She is also currently working on a certificate in academically gifted education. A research has been found that when children read extensively in a wide range, they might become better writers.

Reading different kind of genres help children in learning text structures and language which can be transferred to their own writing. In addition, reading provides young people with prior knowledge which can be used in their stories. One of the primary reasons that we can read is to learn, especially while we are still in school. A major portion of what we know comes from the texts we read. Since writing is the act of transmitting knowledge in print, we must have information to share before we can write it. Therefore reading plays a major role in writing.

It’s easier to start off by reading, because it gives children the opportunity to recognize words and phrases, and adapt them to use when they are writing. It also gives the opportunity for children to understand more before they begin writing, as they already know how basic sentence structures work, which is shown through reading not by direct teaching. 10 More Reading for Better Writing To produce better writing by reading more. Reading is the single most important activity that leads to better writing. In fact, it’s just as crucial as actually writing.

So, let’s talk about why it’s essential for writers to read as much as possible and also reading before writing. Firstly, more reading, the human brain is like a sponge. We soak up everything that we observe and experience throughout our lives, and each thing we are exposed to become part of the very fiber of our beings. What we read is no exception. You may not be able to recite the Mother Goose nursery rhymes you read as a child, but they’re still somewhere in that head of yours. When you hear Jack be nimble, Jack be quick, that little voice inside your head will tell you that Jack jumped over a candlestick.

It’s embedded in your brain. Secondly, better writing, by reading a lot, you will develop a familiarity with language. Your vocabulary will expand and turns of phrase will wedge themselves into your memory. Even grammar sinks in. Forget memorizing all the rules, just read writers who are grammatically adept. Eventually, it all will become part of your mental makeup. Melissa Donovan is a website designer and copywriter. She writes fiction and poetry and is the founder and editor of Writing Forward, a blog packed with creative writing tips and ideas. 1 Ninety percent of schools teach reading before writing because it’s easier to start off by reading, because it gives children the opportunity to recognise words and phrases, and adapt them to use when they are writing. It also gives the opportunity for children to understand more before they begin writing, as they already know how basic sentence structures work, which is shown through reading not by direct teaching. Moreover, you can also incorporate more words into your writing if you have a better vocabulary. Comments : 2. 1. Chan Chu Ying Base on the article, more reading our vocabulary will expand and turns of phrase will wedge them into our memory. It stimulates our brain, and makes you become a more creative thinker. It is a wonderful skill to have, and if our get us hands on a really good book, reading will become like eating is a great technology. The more we learn from reading books the more lessons you will know for life. If we can see, we do not look like it could fly, but it will not fly, we read every book that you have to go to a new place. We find more villains, more cases; we have not thought of a way out, you have to be a hero to accommodate more.

Reading also gives our knowledge, keeps our mind and imagination active since our picture the scenes, improve memory, and learn about new things and new idea. 2. 1. 2 Stefanie Tio 12 There are many researchers who do researches about teaching reading skills first to the students or scholars then continuing with writing skills. The result shows that this method has a lot of advantages, such as, helping students or scholars in learning sentence structure and language in making application to their writing, giving more information which can be used to their writing, and making them become more familiar with language.

However, not all of the students or scholars can use this method in learning. Moreover, not all of the teachers also feel comfortable using this way of teaching. This happens because every single person is different, one can use this method efficiently; on the other hand, one cannot accept this method. For instance, some of the students’ writing is very good and their uses of grammar also excellent. These results come because they read many books with different genre so they have known a wide range of vocabulary and the grammar also already ‘sinks’ in their brain. . 1. 3 Lv Ya Wei A research told us that kids will have more opportunity to become a good writer if they do a lot of reading because reading is more easier than writing and also reading different types of books can help kids to deal with the reality world stuff better. They can solve the problems or attempt to stop making mistakes by using the examples they have already read. When the kids write something, every part of the writing root in reading. They learn the words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs from reading. At the same time 13 hey expand their vocabulary, improve the writing skills and have more experience and feeling about writing just like having already found a guideline or a good teacher. Everything turns into their brain like memories, next time when they need some opinion or advices the memories will come out and show them. This will be a great help for their writing even their future life. If you want to make yourself a high step in writing, the fact is first you have to do some reading enough, then you can create the style of your own. You study from reading and make it better.

The only way is reading before writing. Always, the efficiency of reading by oneself is lower than reading be taught. So reading should be taught before writing. 2. 1. 4 Low Lei Hoong After read the research paper of reading then writing, I think the students who read more of the books can be better writers. The students who had read different kinds of genre, the students are able to learn text structures and also good language in the writing. By this skill, the students can use all the information that they already to write in the writing essay or books.

The students who read more genres of books, books can provide a lot of prior knowledge in their reading. The students can also use the knowledge they get to solve a problem. Besides that, the students will able to recognize the difficult words and 14 good phrases. In the writing an essay or books, the students can use the words and phrases that their get from reading books. By reading first then writing the paragraph, the students can develop a familiarity with language and no necessary with the same language that they only know it.

Furthermore, the essay will easy to start off by reading first because the students will use their own information to write it out. Those students start with reading, they are able to understand some difficulty words before they started writing. 2. 2 Writing then Reading One tool which can be looked for improving students’ reading, as well as their learning from text is writing. Writing has three ways to improve reading. Firstly, reading and writing activities are functional, which can be combined to reach a specific goal. In this case is learning new ideas which are represented in the text (Fitzgerald and Shanahan, 2000).

For example, writing sciences information might facilitate comprehension and learning so the reader can understand and learn easily. This happens because it provides the meaning of recording, connecting, analyzing, personalizing and manipulating the main idea of the text. Secondly, the connecting of reading and writing, as they draw upon common knowledge and cognitive processes (Shanahan, 2006). Therefore, to improve students’ writing skills, teachers must also improve their reading skills. Thirdly, reading and writing are activities which provide communication.

Writers should improve their perception about reading by making 15 their own texts (Tierney and Shanahan, 1991), in order to make better understanding for the others. Writing to Read perception cannot determine all the ways that writing can improve reading more than writing, and to identify all the possible ways to enhance students’ writing. However, all of the Writing to Read recommendations have already shown clear results in improving students’ reading. Nevertheless, even when these practices are used together, they do not constitute a complete course.

The writing practices which are described in this report should be taught in flexible and thoughtful way to support the learning of the students. The proof is well known as writing can be used for improving reading. The fact is to allow students in writing from what they have read and see how they understand it. The same result also can be seen when students write texts from different subjects such as science and social studies. This result is consistent with the finding from Writing Next that writing about science, math, and other types of information promotes students’ learning of the material.

Moreover, the teaching of writing is not only to improve the students’ writing in demonstrating writing, but also to improve the student’s ability to read and understand the texts. They need to read the text accurately, fluently and with understanding. Finally, the results also show that students who spend more time in writing have positive impact on reading. It improves students’ understanding about 16 the text which is written by other writers. When it is taken together, these results from Writing to Read and Writing Next highlight the authority of writing as a tool to enhance reading and content learning.

In addition, writing is always been recommended as a tool to improve reading. In Reading Next (Biancarosa and Snow, 2004), intensive writing was identified as a tense element of an effective childhood literacy programs. Reading Next wrote that writing instruction improves reading comprehension and writing skills teaching (grammar and spelling) is used to strengthen reading skills. Writing about a text is also believed to improve students’ understanding, because it helps them to connect what they have read, know, understand, and think (Carr, 2002).

However, it is also noted that the effects of this writing practise on reading are to minimize students who only wrote a little or do not have clear instructions on how to do writing. For instance, Weber and Henderson (1989) found that the more writing instruction can produced more in reading gains than the less writing instruction. National survey of the writing practices at the high school level, Kiuhara, Graham, and Hawken (2009) found that students are rarely required to complete writing tasks which involve analysis and interpretation.

Assignments which require more writing than a single paragraph happened only less than once a month in 50% of the classes. Based on data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Applebee and Langer (2006) also reported similar results. Kiuhara and colleagues 17 further also indicated that high schools’ writing instruction was very rare, even in language arts classes, and become less in social studies and science classes. Many teachers (60% of science teachers, for example) reported, they feel unprepared to teach how to write to the students.

Eventhough primary teachers have spent more time in teaching writing and are better prepared to teach writing practices (Cutler and Graham, 2008 Graham Harris, MacArthur, and Fink CHORZEMPA of 2003), most elementary students only spend about 20 minutes a day for writing. The writing teaching has approached a lot of the evidence-based practices. In Writing Next (Graham and Perin, 2007), 4th – 12th grade students has been identified through a comprehensive meta-analysis of writing intervention research in eleven effective instructional practices (see Graham, MacArthur and Fitzgerald [2007] for detailed presentation for these practices).

Many of these writing practices, such as writing process of teaching or how to build more complex sentence, also has positive impact on students’ reading ability in the review. The challenge now is to help schools and teachers in making these and other effective practice as an integral part of their literacy programs. This report proves that good writing instruction is very crucial to achieve all the goals of the literacy. This report is to determine the effects of multiple writing practices on students’ reading performance.

A considerable research has accumulated over the years to get the result from 93 comparisons examining the effects of reading and writing. The current study involved a wide range of subjects, including language arts, science, 18 social studies, and second language learning, guided students in urban, suburban, and rural schools. The huge existing experimental and rural experimental research is enough to make the conclusions and recommendations which can help policy-makers and educators to redesign the schools until it can meet the goal of all literacy. The practice of writing cannot take ffective reading methods (see Biancarosa and Snow [2004] and NICHD [2000] for a review of such practices). On the contrary, the writing practices supplement reading practice and should always be used in connecting, support and strengthening with each type of the practice. Our evidence suggests that these writing activities enhance the students’ text understanding in the improvements from the traditional reading activities, such as reading text, reading and rereading text, reading and discussing text, and accepting improvements in reading instruction.

The empirical evidence suggests that the practice of writing, as described in the report to strengthen the concept of reading skills which writing should be taught, and emphasized as an integral part of the school curriculum. Previous studies have found, teaching the same process of writing and skills can improve the quality of students’ writing (Graham and Perin, 2007a; see also Graham, in press; Rogers and Graham, 2008) and learning content (as demonstrated in Graham and Perin [2007a] and Bangert-Drowns, Hurley, and Wilkinson [2004]). Students who do not have 19 trong writing skills might not be able to take full advantage of the power of writing as a tool to strengthen reading. Comments : 2. 2. 1 Chan Chu Ying Base on the article, an often overlooked tool for improving students’ reading and learning from text, writing. Reading and writing cannot determine all the way, writing can improve reading and writing again. All writing and reading proposals have shown clear results, to improve their reading. Writing can be used to improve the readability of the vehicle. Enhanced in order to let students write the text they read and how they understand it.

In addition, the teaching of writing, not only to improve students’ writing, writing pages, but also enhance the student’s ability, accurately, fluently and comprehend text. Allow students to spend more time reading and writing have a positive impact, and improve students’ reading comprehension was written by someone else. Overall, the results of the study of college writing outstanding English writing, reading, and writing as a tool to improve reading and learning content. The students spend more time writing a positive impact on reading to improve students’ reading comprehension was written by someone else. . 2. 2 Stefanie Tio According to this research paper, there are several reasons why writing skills should be taught first then reading skills in teaching students or scholars. The first 20 reason is because writers should improve their own passages to make the readers can understand the meaning easily. Secondly, it can make a big improvement in students’ reading. Moreover, it also can make students become more creative since they are not be able to see others’ writing so they make their writing based on their way to write.

Although the results are already proved by quite a lot of researchers, many teachers are still not ready in using this method in teaching. This happens because they feel difficult what should they do to start teaching writing skills in the beginning of the lesson. In my opinion, this method only suitable if it is used in writing analytical passage, such as laboratory report, mathematic report, and so on because in this type of writing, students need to write based on the result of their practicum and write about their opinion about what will happen next. 2. 2. Lv Ya Wei Putting Writing before Reading is an effective approach to teaching and learning. Writing can make your reading better, writing some information that is fact will help us to understand each other better, so for the readers is more easier to study. Because writing will improve our skills of recording, connecting, analyzing, making things personal and controlling them. The phrase “reading and writing” reflects the implicit assumption that reading comes first and that writing must follow. First graders can “write” all the words they can say, albeit in their own manner and using invented spelling.

Encouraging this kind of writing gives children control over letters and texts, giving them an 21 understanding that they need ultimately for reading. The word learning itself tends to promote reading over writing because we often assume learning refers to input, not output, that it’s a matter of putting other people’s ideas inside us. Writing is more caught up with meaning making, however, and encourages students to break out of their characteristically passive stance in school and in learning. Reading tends to imply Sit still and pay attention, whereas writing tends to imply Get in there and do something.

It’s not the case that putting writing first–output before input–will encourage individualism. We will put more care into reading when they have had more of a chance to write. 2. 2. 4 Low Lei Hoong To improve the student’s reading skill, the best way to improve is by writing the texts or books before them reading. The students can write the information might facilitate comprehension and learning so that readers can learn it in easily. This happens because inside the text have all the function of reading such as meaning of connecting, analyzing, recording and manipulating the idea of text.

By this skill, writing can provide the communication to the others person. Those people don’t know how to say out their mind, they might use writing skill to say out their mind. Besides that, their writing can give them a lot of unexpected thinking and ideas to create new things. Furthermore, the students who make their own texts for their own understand. Writing the essay also can improve the student’s reading. 22 Writing more than reading can make the students improve ability reading and understand the texts.

The fact is allowing the students understanding what they write and understanding the meaning of text. Hence, writing first then continue with reading, the students can improve their own understanding what their own writing. The students reading skill also can improve by writing the texts. 2. 3 Reading and Writing Should Be Taught Together According to Spandel & Stiggins in 1997, before writers can create their own writing, they can learn and know that good writing is all about by hearing and loving others’ work. Students are mostly ready learning to write by reading literature often and widely.

Increasing attention to the connections between reading and writing to children literature’s quality have been given by teachers and researchers, such as Calkins 1994; Eckhoff 1983; Harste, Shorte & Burke 1998; Lancia 1997; Tierney & Pearson 1983. The similar processes of composing meaning are reading and writing which contributes to the successful by practicing. Lucy Calkins (1994), who is the author of The Art Of Teaching Writing, said that reading and writing connections started by teachers and caregivers because they help children feel interest with a single poem, book or essay.

The students’ writing which teachers get might be good if the classroom literature surrounds and sustains it because literature is the most influence of all students (Fletcher and Portalupi 1998). Moreover, Donovan and Smolkin (2002) state students writing paralleled what they 23 knew about narrative and exposition reading. It means that students were able to use those attributes or skill in their own writing whether they knew and understood about the characteristics of the reading genre. Teachers are urged to be readers to teach themselves about the definition of quality writing (Spandel and Stiggins 1997).

With reading often and widely, teachers can continuously discover the writing examples that can be shared to students in teaching good writing. When teachers share the meaningful passage or story with students, students are exposed to rich lexical-items and develop literary awareness as they hear good writers’ language. Students also can learn the language and structure of the passage or story. By leading the students in discussing stories and books which are focusing on characters and plot, teachers can make students familiar with these important elements of writing.

Based on Calkins 1994, when we read to the children, the children and us should be preparing to take the next action. By using authors as mentors, students also can learn many kinds of writing styles and elements of craft. Teachers also can let the students know that most authors had mentors and were influenced by others’ writing. This can help students to survey and experiment with formats and styles from their favorite writers. Many students think and believe that teachers are the only audience for their writing because teachers are usually reading and assessing their assignment.

Based to 24 Mem Fox (1993), whenever or whatever she writes, there is always someone on the other side. Writing to different audience requires attention to appropriate content and tone, depending on the age or experience of the reader. It is very crucial for teacher, not only to point out the audiences’ use in literature, but also to guide the students to make their own decisions by asking the words from the passage. Once the students understand reading – writing connection and the important of audiences to the passage, they will try to begin writing with audiences in their own mind.

Ralph Fletcher, who wrote A Writer’s Notebook (1996), says that a writer’s notebook is a place to record things that make readers’ emotion and also to keep and write things readers need to remembered and noticed. He also stated, “Write it down in your notebook before it slips your mind”. Moreover, many writers collect articles which are related to their writing form newspaper and magazine. Some news sometimes can increase an idea for writing and can be used just from cut and paste it out in your notebook.

We have become too much focused on journal writing, especially with primary-grade students (Routman 1996). Personal journals can promote fluency in both reading and writing, encourage risk taking and provide opportunity for reflection. There are a many types of good books which can have profound effects on student’s writing styles in the classroom. Saturation with literature directly influence writing by providing important models and a lively interaction between reading and writing (Lancia, 1997). As they become familiar with story elements, terminology 25 and style.

Students can start to use this skill into their own writing. Routman, 1994 wrote that immersion in literature is one of the best ways to encourage students to write in a particular genre. However, students must hear and examine many types of books before they can expect to write themselves. Students who know many types of books, rhymes or poems, in their writing can appear many favorite characters, words and phrases. Most of the words are learned through reading or listening to others. In this way, children can understand difficult words and also teachers can help children o learn new words. Based on Calkins in 1994, the connection is easier to make if students spend more time in reading, studying and listening to picture books, alphabet books or poems. Inside the student’s writing, the length of most picture books is similar and also the time it takes to read will make them effective addition to the writing activity. Comments : 2. 3. 1 Chan Chu Ying Base on the article, widely and frequently read, teachers can continue to find examples, we can share the students’ writing.

When teachers sharing meaningful passage or story with students, students are exposed to rich lexical-terms and develop literary awareness. Students also can learn the structure and language of passage or story. Students can also study the structure and language of the channel or the story. 26 Discussion to guide students through the books and focus on the characters and plot story, the teacher will familiarize students with writing some of the necessary elements. Most vocabulary is learned that the read or listen to other people to see.

Appropriate reading materials, creative use, which will improve writing courses. Those students who are exposed to many genre and styles of good literature are very likely to transfer these rich experience into their writing. In addition, picture books can be used to encourage the child with the audience feel new vocabulary and literary devices. Through the use of different types of reading materials, students can be exposed to more ideas to write well. 2. 3. 2 Stefanie Tio Mostly students are ready in learning how to write if they also have reading passages as their examples.

Moreover, scholars can also produce a good writing for their assignments, but they do not know how to make it. Maybe they do not know how a good writing should be made or they never have a good example before. This is not because they want to follow other writers’ way to write, but because they really do not know how to write without seeing the good example first. There are many varieties of books which are sold outside, many of them are good books which can be followed by the students and some of them are not very good if someone want to see them as an example.

Because of these reasons, teachers also need to guide students to find the good books to follow so their writing can be as good as good writer. 2. 3. 3 Lv Ya Wei 27 Writing is not a skill that students learn separate from other processes. It combines many complex activities, including categorizing, building key terms and concepts for a subject, measuring one’s reaction to a subject, making new connections, abstracting, figuring out significance, and developing arguments—to name a few. Our highest cognitive functions are developed and supported through active and interconnected use of language—speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

In practice, this means that reading (and speaking and listening) can be used as a springboard for writing projects, and writing can be used as a way to understand reading. A variety of informal, often ungraded, writing activities may be used, for instance, to help students understand that critical reading can be practiced through writing about reading and that writing projects can be strengthened through careful, critical reading. Classroom practices can be designed so that students use writing to read and reading to write. Writing courses consistently provide such integrated activities for students.

Essentially,reading is a kind of skill that receive information, writing is a process of producing. Let reading and writing be taught together will save resources also Improve cognitive system of a human being. Because reading and writing are both included in learning, they are just two different steps, but still they belong to the same system. Then the common grounds and possibilities between reading and writing allocate resource in a more effective way. Because of efficient, saving time, enhance communication between people, they absolutely should be taught together. 8 2. 3. 4 Low Lei Hoong The students who teach reading and writing together will increase their attention of literature quality of themselves. The students will be successful by increase their literature quality. Besides that, the students will feel more interesting in the different genres of books, poems and essay. Teachers can shared the different types of writing to be shared to students for them understanding the skills of writing. Students also can discuss stories and books which are focusing on characters and plot.

Students can be use different authors to be mentors. This skill can make the students to more effective writing and more feel more interest in writing. The students will make their favorite authors to their guideline for writing essay and books. Furthermore, the writing skill not only for the teachers and also can for the others audience who want to read the story and books. The students can also use the notebooks to record the things. The notebooks can record all the things that make readers emotion and also to keep the things make readers to noticed and remembered.

When the readers read the magazines and also newspaper, the information they get, they can write down in the notebook so that they can use it in writing. There are many types of good books which can have profound effects of students writing in classroom. The information they get from the books, the writers can use it in the writing essay or paragraph. The books can appear many favorite 29 characters, words and phrases for them write in the books. With reading and writing, the students are able to understand the difficult words and lean new words. This difficulty words and new words can use it the writing. . 4 Linking Sentences to Chapter III With all above of our comments, we think that the third topic, which is Reading and Writing Should Be Taught Together, is the best method. We will explain our conclusion and recommendation of using this method in the next chapter. 30 CHAPTER III CONCLUSION 3. 1 Points to Remember Reading is a phenomenon where someone must have as this skill so they can understand what the readers’ mean by writing the text. However, writing is a skill in making well writing paper by using coherent words so the readers can understand what is the meaning of the writer’s writing.

There are a lot of differences in teaching method for students and scholars, such as teaching reading then writing skills, writing then reading skills, and teaching both reading and writing skills at the same time. We have stated all of the explanations above and have discussed about the advantages and disadvantages which students and scholars can get. Therefore, we choose reading and writing should be taught together because with suitable reading materials which are used creatively, this will enhance the writing curriculum.

Those students who are exposed to many genre and styles of good literature are very likely to transfer these rich experiences into their writing. Besides that, picture books can be used to encourage children with sense of audience, new vocabulary and various literary devices. By using different types of reading materials, the students can exposed more idea to make a good writing. 31 In our opinion, we recommend all the teachers who teach language in schools or universities to teach students and scholars by using “Reading and Writing should be taught together” method. 3. Recommendation From our research, we strongly believe that the reading and writing should be taught together because it will give the scholars a better way to study the language. So that the students will be more prepare to have effective writing skills because all of the universities, not only University, will told scholars to write for assignment and final examinations in using words. 32 BIBLIOGRAPHY Brummit. Joelle. n. d. The Relationship between Reading and Writing. , from http:// www. k12reader. com/the-relationship-between-reading-and-writing/ Donovan, M. (2012, September 7). More Reading for Better Writing. . d. , from http://www. writingforward. com/better-writing/more-reading-better-writing Graham, S. , & Hebert, M. A. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improvereading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Luvhistory. (2012, March 2). Why do ninety percent of schools teach reading before writing. n. d. , from http://wiki. answers. com/Q/Why_do_ninety_ percent_of_schools_teach_reading_before_writing Olness, R. (2005). Using literature to enhance writing instruction (pp. 1-9). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 33

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