World History Second Semester Final Exam

Martin Luther
German monk and professor of theology; 95 theses; Lutheranism
Salvation by faith alone
Believing in Jesus Christ by praising and faith, but not works
Indulgences
fees for services such as marriage and baptism
John Calvin
found Calvinism, he wrote “Institutes of a Christian Religion”, believed people were predestined for heaven or hell
Predestination
Long ago, God determind who would gain salvation
Theocracy in Geneva
government run by the church
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Henry VIII
King of England “Defender of Faith”; Parliament made him head of church; wrote to church to condemn Luther’s teachings
Counter Reformation
movement to counter the spread of the Reformation; initiated by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent
Elizabeth I
Henry VIII & Anne’s daughter; reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada
Shakespeare
english poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers
Philip II
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England
Spanish Armanda
a fleet of ships sent by Philip ll, to invade England and restore Roman Catholicism
Advances of the Scientific Revolution
telescope-look into space
scientific method-process to collect data
human body structure
ointment-protect infection
Heliocentrism
sun centered
Copernicus
published “The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres” ; first person to believe that the planets revolved around the sun
Galileo
created the telescope; heliocentric theory along with Copernicus
Newton
English mathematician and physicist; developed law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
Absolute Monarch
A king or queen with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom
Divine Right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from God
Louis XIV
the Sun King, he was the greatest,longest absolute monarch in French history
Sun King
nickname for Louis XIV that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles, which he built
Versailles
amazing monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Constitutional Monarchy
a king or queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
Lord Protector Cromwell
english general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War
Cromwell’s Protectorate Government
a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
Glorious Revolution Cause
english overthrow of James II
Glorious Revolution Result
King James offends his subjects by displaying his Catholicism & his wife gives birth to a son, British citizens become nervous that a line of Catholic kings will rule England, so the citizens force King James II to abdicate his throne; His daughter Mary and her husband William are invited by parliament to rule England. They agree to recognize Parliament as their partner and the absolute monarchy is replaced with a constitutional monarchy. They also agree to rule with parliament and a bill of rights.
William and Mary
king and queen of England after Glorious Revoluton and with them, King James’ Catholic reign ended
English Bill of Rights
king William and queen Mary accepted this document that declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Philosophes
thinkers of the Enlightenment; wanted to educate the socially elite; weren’t allowed to openly criticize church or state..discussed in salons
Salons
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, and phisophes exchanged ideas
Voltaire
French, greatest Enlightenment thinker; wrote Candide;believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Montesquieu
wrote On the Spirit of Laws; french political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
Checks and Balances
system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Rousseau
wrote the Social Contract; he identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted by society; all people equal and abolish the nobility
Social Contract
an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society
John Locke
believed people were born with a blank slate; life, liberty, and property
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States; author of Declaration of Independence from Virgina; Life, Liberty, & the Pursuit of Happiness
Enlightened Despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
Catherine the Great
empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire
Frederick the Great
“1st servant of the state”; exerted extremely tight control over his subjects during his reign in Prussia
1st Estate
consisted of clergy ;they owned about 10% of the land; they were exempt from taxes; provided social services
2nd Estate
2-4% nobility; crushed military power, but gained top jobs in the government, army, court, & church nobles felt they weren’t gettting paid enough and had to maintain that status; hated absolutism & royal bureaucracy; exempted from taxes
3rd Estate
the commoners of French society prior to the revolution; the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers, san-culottes, artisans, and peasants
French Revolution
an uprising of the people that led to the end of the French monarchy and the beheading of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Political Causes of the French Revolution
Louis called the Estates General to mess up the estates even more
Intellectual Causes of the French Revolution
ideas & writings of Enlightenment thinkers like Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau became widespread; the French people were inspired to go against Louis
Economic causes of the French Revolution
Louis XIV had spent too much; his successors did not cut down expenses;Louis XVI also failed to improve the financial situation, he dismissed ministers who tried to introduce financial reforms; by 1789, the government was bankrupt
Social Causes of the French Revolution
The Third estate had to pay heavy taxes, work hard, and get no say in the government while the other estates had the Estates General and no taxes
Results of French Revolution
Taxes lowered, social reform; nationalism spread
Bourgeoisie
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette
king and queen of France were spending much of frances money on themselves not on helping the citizens >citizens uprising> death of king and queen by guilotene
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, 1789, destruction of the prison because of Paris citizens defening the National Assembly & wanted the gun powder; seen as the true start of the French Revolution
Reign of Terror
the period when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Napoleonic Wars
French wars against England, Prussia, Russia, and Austria led by Napoleon
Napoleonic Code
civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property
Congress of Vienna
meeting of representatives of European monarchs, called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Reasons for Great Britain’s leadership of Industrial Revolution
strong ecomonic advance; slavery; & scientific/technological developments
Urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
Laissez-faire Capitalism
This was the style of capitalism in which the government had no interference with the economy
Utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all
Marxist Communism
-work according to ability -receive according to need -classless society -no need for government
Modern Communism
a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country
Bourgeoisie & Proletariat in terms of Karl Marx
one does factory work while the other does manual work such as mining, farming
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country
Militarism
glorification of war and military
Romanticism
artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual’s expression of emotion and imagination
Realpolitik
politics based on practical, rather than moral or ideological considerations
Imperialism
policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically
Causes of Imperialism
Industrialism, nationalist feelings, desire to spread religion, social darwinism
Impacts from Imperialism
Justification for racism & belief that Europe was superior
Otto Von Bismarck
chancellor of Prussia & Germany; conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria and France; was responsible for the unification of the German Empire; blood & iron.
Berlin Conference
meeting to divide Africa by European powers; no African representatives
White Man’s Burden
talks about problems and rewards of imperialism; racist & elite
The Raj
title of British control in India; reign of Queen Victoria… created in order to trade
Commodore Perry
leader who came to Japan and forced them to open up to Western trade and influence
Open Door Policy
policy proposed by the US which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade with/in China
Causes of World War 1
Competition, militarism, nationalism, and Pan slavism
“spark” to start WWI
(powder keg) – Balkan Peninsula attacked Turkey and that lead to further issues
Alliance System
an agreement to support another country in case of war; two huge alliances emerged from this
Triple Alliance
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy
Triple Entente
Britain
Russia
France
New weapons introduced in WWI
Tanks, poisen gas, machine guns, U-boats, and airplanes
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat; 128 Americans died; sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war
Reason why U.S. entered WWI
Zimmerman Note, Lusitania, money issues, advancing their politics, submarine warfare by Germany
Effect of the U.S. joining WWI
defeat of Axis powers faster by ecomically and military
Treaty of Versailles
treaty imposed on Germany by Allied Powers after World War I demanding that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland
League of Nations
an international association formed after World War I with the goal of keeping peace among nations
War Guilt Clause
a provision in the treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI
War Reparations
payments demanded by the victors from the losers & Germany had to admit responsibility for WWI and pay for costs of the war.
Russian Revolution Causes
WWI loss of ecomincs & military, Tsar’s mistakes, and riots
Bolsheviks
led by Lenin, it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
Stalin
russian leader who took Lenin’s spot as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
Causes of WWII
Dictators, Imperialism, consequences of WWI, appeasement, nationalism, Treaty of Versailles, facism
Totalitarianism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator, not restricted by law or constitution
Hitler
german Nazi dictator during World War II, Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
Nazism
a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism, Adolf Hitler used this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany
Mein Kampf
book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia
Appeasements
giving in to the demands of an aggressor to keep the peace; Hitler, Stalin
Manchuria
a region in northeastern China invaded by Japan
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Holocaust
plan made by Hitler to ensure German supremacy; It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, mentally and physically disabled
Emperor Hirohito
emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II
Cold War
conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union, the nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years
Iron Curtain
term to describe the division between Communist and non-Communist life in Europe made by Churchill
NATO
organization made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
many nations agreed to signed this to help prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to other nations
Global Interdependence
means that people and nations worldwide depend on one another for many goods and services
Out-sourcing
producing inexpensive products by building factories and hiring workers in other countries; ex: U.S. grounds in China
European Union
international organization made of Western European countries to promote free trade among members
Ghandi
fought for indian independence with non-violence to expose Great Britain
Ghandi’s Civil Disobedience Movement
hunger strikes and peaceful protests
Causes of Vietnam War
prevent the spread of communism into neighboring countries the US helped the South Vietnam fight the Soviet and Chinese aided North Vietnamese form; Pearl Harbor; Fort Sumter capture; battles on Concord and Lexington
Vietnam War Results
South Vietnam and U.S. lost soldiers and money
Viet Cong
communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam
Chairman Mao
Communist leader of China, started Cultural Revolution
Great Leap Forward
a five-year economic plan that collectivized farms in China and put them into communes
Cultural Revolution
campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation
Tiananmen Square/ Causes
Death of Hu Yaobang
-many deaths, corruption of Chinese government
Korean War
conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea, United Nations/United States helped South Korea
Apartheid
the former policy of racial segregation and oppression in the Republic of South Africa
Nelson Mandela
President of South Africa, spent 27 years in prison after conviction of charges while he helped spearhead the stuggle against apartheid, received the Nobel Peace Prize
F.W. de Klerk
elected as the last white South African president, he legalized the ANC and also released Nelson Mandela from prison, this started a new era in South Africa and ended apartheid
AIDS
disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
Fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
Arab Isreali Conflict
conflict that began in 1948 over the land once know as Palastine, now known as Isreal
Intifada
“The Uprising” against Israel by some Palestinians Arabs
Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi’s regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers
Iran Iraq War
the war began when Iraq invaded Iran in 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of influence on Iran’s Islamic revolution
Taliban
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined war on terror aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world
9-11
terrorist attacks in NYC, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania made by the “al Qaeda”