World History Prentice Hall Chapter 16 Vocabulary

Hapsburg Empire
the Holy Empire and the Netherlands
Charles V
heir of the Hapsburg Empire (Charles I)
Philip II
expanded Spanish influence, strengthened the Catholic Church, and made his own power absolute
Absolute monarch
a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people
Divine right
belief that the ruler’s authority comes directly to God
Armada
fleet to carry a Spanish invasion force to England
El Greco
“The Greek” who painted haunting religious pictures and portraits of Spanish nobles during Spain’s Golden Age
Miguel de Cervantes
an important writer of Spain’s Golden Age who wrote Don Quixote becoming Europe’s first modern novel
Huguenots
Catholics and French Protestants who tore France apart
Henry IV
a prince who inherited the French throne in 1589 fighting against fierce Catholic opposition to gain control of France (Huguenots)
Edict of Nantes
granted the Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms
Cardinal Richelieu
(1624) chief minister who devoted the next 18 years to strengthening the central government after Henry IV’s death
Louis XIV
five year old who inherited the throne in 1643 after Richelieu’s death
Intendants
royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
brilliant finance minister who imposed mercantilist policies to bolster the economy
Versailles
royal French residence and seat of government established by King Louis XIV
Levée
morning ritual during which nobles would wait upon French king Louis XIV(rising)
Balance of power
the goal to maintain a distribution of military and economic power among Europeans nations to prevent any one country from dominating the region
James I
first Stuart monarch, who agreed to rule according to English laws and customs after Elizabeth I’s death
Dissenters
Protestants who differed with the Church of England
Puritans
members of an English Protestant group who wanted to “purify” the Church of England by making it more simple and more morally strict
Charles I
inherited the throne on 1625 and behaved like an absolute monarch; refused to sign the Petition of Right and dissolved Parliament
Oliver Cromwell
a puritan member of the lesser gentry and proved himself to be a skilled general
English Bill of Rights
24. – series of acts passed by the English Parliament in 1689 that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of Parliament
Limited monarchy
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch’s powers
Constitutional government
a government whose power is defined and limited by law
Cabinet
parliamentary advisors to the king who originally met in a small room
Oligarchy
28. – a government in which the ruling power belongs to a few people
Electors
one of the seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor
Ferdinand
the Catholic Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sought to suppress Protestants and to assert royal power over nobles
Mercenary
soldier serving in a foreign army for pay
Depopulation
reduction in the number of people in an area
Peace of Westphalia
series of treaties that ended the Thirty Year’s War (1648)
Maria Theresa
Charles VI daughter who was intelligent and capable to rule Hapsburg lands
War of the Austrian Succession
– series of wars in which various European nations competed for power in Central Europe after the death of Hapsburg Emperor Charles IV

40. –

Prussia
a strong military in central Europe that emerged in late 1600s
Frederick William I
Prussian ruler who came to power upon the death of his father in 1713
Frederick II
preferred playing the flute and writing poetry instead of training in the art of war
Peter the Great
used his power to put Russia on the road to becoming a great modern power
Westernization
the adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture
Autocratic
having with unlimited power
Boyar
landowning nobles in Russia under the tsars
Warm-water port
port that is free of ice year-round
St. Petersburg
capital city and major port that Peter the Great established in 1703
Catherine the Great
a new monarch who took the reins of the power after Peter died without an heir or a naming successor
Partition
a division into pieces

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