World History NCFE Review

civilization
territory in which people have developed organization
5 aspects of civilization
records, institutions, technology, specialization, advanced cities
cultural diffusion
process during which ideas, beliefs or goods spread from one group of people to another
mummification
process of embalming the dead to prevent decaying, utilized in Ancient egypt
Harappa
major city in Indus River Valley, known for both its city planning and its plumbing system
Fertile Crescent
area of land characterized by rich farmland in SW Asia, considered to be the “cradle of civilization”
polytheism
religion with more than one deity or god
Hammurabi’s Code
first written code of laws given by Babylonians after conquering Mesopotamia
theocracy
form of government based on religious power or appointment from a deity, leader = divine figure
pharaoh
ruler of Egypt who had absolute power and was considered to be a god himself
Mesopotamia
first known civilization, developed the wheel and cuneiform, established on the Tigris an Euphrates Rivers
Indo-Europeans
Group of people who migrated suddenly from the steppes into Europe, India, Africa and SW Asia
Hittites
An Indo-European people group who settled in Anatolia but eventually migrated and forced Egypt to sign a peace treaty
Indo-Aryans
Group f people who existed on the Indian subcontinent, possibly emerged from the Indo-Europeans, had caste system
Vedas
collections of sacred writings produced by the Aryans, became the sacred text of Hinduism
Karma
the concept that actions and deeds cause the cycle of cause and effect ( good actions vs. bad actions -> impact on one’s life)
Enlightenment
state of perfect wisdom, aspired to by both Hindus and Buddhists
Caste System
strict social structure that determines much of one’s life, established at birth
Buddhism
religion based on Dharma (teachings of Siddhartha), the Eightfold path and the four noble truths
Hinduism
religion based on the Vedas, believes in reincarnation based on karma until one reaches enlightenment, like caste system
Reincarnation
belief that people’s spirits continue to be reborn into the world until enlightenment or nirvana is achieved
Filial piety
devotion to one’s family, as emphasized by the Chinese philosophy of Confucianism
Islam
Abrahamic faith that points to Muhammad as the final prophet, requires followers to commit to its Five Pillars
Christianity
teaches that humans are inherently evil, but that Jesus paid the penalty and offers eternal life through a relationship with him
Nirvana
state of release from pain and suffering, ends the cycle of reincarnation
Four Noble Truths
the essence of Buddha’s teachings identify the truth of suffering, cause of suffering, end of suffering, and path to end suffering
Trojan War
A 10-year war fought in which the Mycenaean army attacked the city of Troy
Homer
the author of the Illiad and the Odyssey, and I revered as the greatest of ancient Greek poets
Persian War
a series of wars fought between the Persian Empire and the Greeks
Phalanx
a military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
Peloponnesian War
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
Macedonia
a region located to the north of Greece, birthplace of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic
a combination of Roman, Hellenistic and Greek cultures prominent within the empire of Alexander the Great, a blend of cultures formed during Alexander the Great’s rule of Greece and the surrounding territories
Philosopher
a thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society and morality
Alexander the Great
leader who conquered Greece, Egypt and Persian and was known for his ability to rule with tolerance
Darius III
Persian king who fled from Alexander’s army multiple times, his family was captured by Alexander yet protected
Consul
one of the two elected officials in the Roman Republic who was in control of the army and government
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, significant because it asserted the strength of a young Rome
Pax Romana
a 200-year period of peace within the borders of the Roman Empire, began with the rule of Augustus
Plebeian
a member of Roman society who was a common farmer, artisan, or merchant; majority of the population
Augustus
formally known as Octavian, consolidated power after the death of Marc Antony and called himself the “exalted one”
Patrician
a member of Roman society who was part of the wealthy, privileged upper class
Republic
form of government in which power rests with the citizens to vote for their leaders/representatives
Triumvirate
a group of three leaders who shared control of the Roman government (1st – Caesar, 2nd Augustus and Marc Antony)
Hannibal
Carthaginian leader who took his troops (with elephants) north to attack Rome
Constantine
Roman emperor who converted to Christianity and ended the persecution with the Edict of Milan
Diocletian
Roman emperor, known for limiting personal freedoms (especially toward Christians) and dividing the empire
Atilla
a powerful Hun chieftain credited with attacking and causing the eventual collapse of the Roman Empire
Aqueduct
a pipe line or channel built to carry water to populated areas, the Romans utilized this for extensive empire
Constantinople
capital of the Easter Roman Empire (and later the Byzantines), named for the emperor who built it
Qur’an
holy text of Islam
Shari’a
Islamic body of law to regulate life of Muslims, based on Sunna and Qur’an
Umayyads
Islamic caliphates after period of civil war, Shi’a/Sunni split occurs as a result
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
Mosque
Islamic place of worship
House of Wisdom
located in Baghdad, center of advancement and education during Islamic Golden Age
Chandra Gupta II
Indian emperor, secured borders, increased trade and ushered in the Golden Age
Muhammad
the last prophet of Allah who became a political and military leader of the Muslims
Allah
Islamic deity
Ka’abah
large cube structure in Mecca to which Muslims pray regularly
Sahara
largest desert in the world, located in Africa
Sunni
Branch of Islam whose members believe that Muslim rulers should follow the Sunna
Ezana
Aksum king who conquered territory and converted to Christianity
Caliph
Supreme religious and political leader in Muslim government
Shi’a
branch of Islam whose members believe that only descendants of Muhammad are rightful rulers
Abbasids
Islamic caliphates, overthrew Umayyads, experienced Golden Age
Gupta Empire
India’s second empire, experienced Golden Age of India
Islam
Religion based on Muhammad’s teachings of the Five Pillars as directed by Allah
Kingdom of Aksum
Early African kingdom, became large international trading center until Islamic invaders
Asoka
Mauryan emperor converted to Buddhism, became non-violent & tolerant of other religions
Persians
Cyrus the Great (use of satraps), Darius the Great (Royal Road)
New Kingdom
Egyptian golden age, Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, Ramses II
Harrapans
Indus River valley, indoor plumbing mysterious disappearance
Qin Dynasty
Commissioned the Great Wall of China, burning of books, legalism
Assyrians
Extremely militaristic, conquered Phoenicians, conquered by Persians
Han Dynasty
Utilized the Silk Road, Empress Lu, Wang Mang
Olmec and Zapotec
Early Mexico structured city-center at Monte Alban
Hittites
Chariots, iron weapons, peace treaty with Egypt
Chavin, Nazca, Moche
Early Peru, mysterious lines that form images on the ground
Phoenecians
Phonetic alphabet, purple dye, use of Carthage as a commercial shipping colony