World History Imperialism

Imperialism
the takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with with the intent of dominating the political, economic and social life of the people of that nation
What were other European imperialist nations?
England, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Holland and Italy
Who was the strongest government at the time?
Britain
What does it mean the sun doesn’t set on the British empire
the British owned so much land that the sun was always shining on a part of British land
where is the suez canal
in egypt
Why did Europeans become imperialists
having an empire was a symbol of greatness and they thought it made them superpower and bought national pride
racism
where one race believes it is superior to others
mercantilism
you get money and money = power
social darwinism
“survival of the fittest” was applied to the social change
Geo-strategic
since africa was being colonized it was important that the European powers all get a piece in order to keep up with their enemies
religious
colonization was done on religious grounds… bringing christianity to the heathen africans
mercantilist
free labor was available for the taking, labor that would provide goods and resources for colonial powers that operated on mercantilist policies
economic
harvesting the vast natural resources for European good would provide a boost to the sagging economies of Europe as well as provide markets for manufactured goods
What was the Europeans overwhelming technological advantage
the maxim gun
what was the maxim gun
the worlds first automatic machines gun
what could the africans protect themselves with
outdated weapons
Cecil Rhodes
a succesful business man and a major supporter of British expansion he was a speaker for imperialism
Belgian King Leopold II
commissioned Henry Stanley to help him obtain land in the Congo and Stanley signed treaties with chiefs of the Congo river and the treaties gave King Leopold II control of those lands
Was King Leopold II a good leader?
No because he licensed companies to brutally exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants causing at least 10 million people to die because of the abuses by King Leopold and the Belgian gov. took away his control
malaria
a disease in Africa carried by mosquitoes and the drug quinine was able to prevent Europeans from getting the disease
what were resources that were needed by imperialists
they had the steam engine, rivers, cables and steamships
what was the Berlin conference
it was held to lay down the rules for the division of Africa, any European country could claim land in Africa by telling other nations
Did any african leaders have a say in the Berlin Conference?
no they didn’t which wasn’t fair
what two African countries were free from European rule
Liberia and Ethiopia
what resources were found in Africa?
copper and tin were found in the Belgian Congo and gold and diamonds were found in South Africa
who were the Boers
dutch settlers who gradually took Africans land and established large farms
what was the great trek
the boers wanted to escape the british so many of them moved north
what was the Boer war
war between the British and Boers, the Boers tried to keep outsiders from coming and taking their gold and diamonds that they found, the British ended up burning Boer farms and imprisoning women and children
who won the Boer war
Britain won the war
what was imperialist management
two methods were created, indirect and direct control
indirect control
relied on existing political rulers and local legislative councils would be created
direct control
french and europeans didn’t believe in the Africans so they created paternalism when the Europeans provided needs for them but not rights
paternalism
Europeans governed the Africans in a fatherly way, providing needs not rights
assimilation
based on the idea that in time the local populations would adopt french culture and become like the french
what was Britains rule in Nigeria
Britain outlawed slave trade, and convinced other groups to help the British
what was the Royal Niger Company
the company had control of the palm-oil trade along the Nigeria river after the Berlin Conference
what were ethnic groups in Nigeria
there were 250 groups but the 3 main groups were, Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Igbo
who were the Hausa-Fulani
they were muslim and had a strong central government
who were the Igbo and Yoruba?
they were people of traditional religions and relied on local chiefs for control
what was the maji maji rebellion
it was believed that if this water was sprinkled on their bodies would turn the germans bullets into water
who was Menelik II
he was the emperor of Ethiopia and built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia
what were some negative effects of colonial rule
new diseases
traditional authority figures were replaced
men were forced to leave villages and find a way to support their families
what were some positive effect of colonial rule
local warfare was reduced
lifespan increased
railroads, dams and telephones were built in African Colonies
slave trade
slaves would be traded
what was the scramble for European Colonies
European countries wanted to colonize Africa but there were fights over land so the Berlin Conference was held
Nigeria’s Civil War
a war between Nigeria and Britain fighting for Nigeria’s independence and Nigeria won and became one of Africa’s most populated countries and was very rich
federal system
power is shared between state governments and central authority
martial law
temporary military rule
what was nigerias struggle for democracy
nigeria had a short lived democracy, and the military had over thrown the government leaving the Hausa, Fulani to take over
dissidents
government opponents
what was going on in South Africa at the time?
due to colonial rule racial conflict was approaching in Africa, a small minority ruled a large black minority
apartheid
complete separation of the races
protests
blacks protested and formed the African National Congress to fight for their rights
African National Congress
organized boycotts and strikes to protest racist policies
Afrikaners
Dutch South Africans
Nelson Mandela
an ANC leader who was imprisoned by the government
F.W. de Klerk
South Africans new president and his goal was to transform South Africa and end its isolation, he legalized the ANC and released Nelson Mandela
How did South Africa move towards democracy?
The ANC was established and went on boycotts and strikes because the policy of apartheid was created and wasn’t fair
Desmond Tutu
led economic campaign against apartheid and he asked foreign nations not to do business with South Africa
new constitution of South Africa
a new democratic law was passed to guarantee equal rights for all citizens and it modeled the US bill of rights