World History Exam Review

monarchy
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
aristocracy
an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another
oligarchy
a form of government in which participation is determined by wealth
tyrant
an illegal ruler with absolute power
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
acropolis
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
city-state
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
polis
Greek city-state
nomes
the various provinces of Upper and Lower Egypt
satrapy
the twenty provinces that Darius divided the empire into; each province was ruled by a governor
provinces
governmental divisions like states
empire
a group of countries under a single authority
pharaoh
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
dynasty
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
archons
a chief in the democracy of Athens
consul
one of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges
proconsul
a provincial governor of consular rank in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire
praetor
they were second to the consuls; were primarily judicial officials (judges); They had to be at least 39 years old.
vassals
person granted land by a feudal lord in return for services
autonomy
immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence
collegiality
sharing interrelated duties and responsibilities with others who have similar positions
rule of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
imperium
command, power, empire
auspicium
divination by the flight of birds, augury from birds
helots
Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.
thetes
Athenian citizens who did not own any land and were used as rowers the Athenian navy and utilized by Pericles to elect him strategos
barbarians
people belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized
citizens
People who had the right to participate in government; official members of a country
patricians
of the hereditary aristocracy or ruling class of ancient Rome
plebeians
the poorer majority of the Roman Empire; the working class; couldn’t be part of government; could vote but not hold office; could not participate in the army
equestrians
In the early Roman Republic, one of the richest classes in the Roman army, those who could afford to maintain a horse. By the late Republic, their role expanded into banking and commerce.
paterfamilias
the head of the family or household in Roman law -always male- and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
hierarchical structure
family functioning based on clear generational boundaries, where the parents maintain control and authority.
tribes
a culturally distinct population whose members consider themselves descended from the same ancestor
patron-client relationship
In ancient Rome, a fundamental social relationship in which the patron—a wealthy and powerful individual—provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means, and in return the clients supported the political careers and economic interests of their patron.
agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
pastoralism
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
trade
exchange or give (something) in exchange for something else
manufacture
the organized action of making of goods and services for sale
subsistence economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
market economy
an economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices
domestication
The process of taming plants or animals to make them more useful to humans
barter
To exchange goods or services without the use of money
agora
a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece; a marketplace
census
a periodic and official count of a country’s population
tithe
an offering of a tenth part of some personal income
hoplite
heavily armored Greek foot soldiers
phalanx
the tight fighting positions that hoplites fought in; formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)
strategos
a military general
mercenaries
foreign soldiers who fought for money; hired
militia
civilians trained as soldiers but not a part of the regular army
volunteer army
a professional army in which all the soldiers are collected if elligible, no matter of rank or status
tribute
something given or done as an expression of esteem
indemnity
a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury; usually from warfare
deportation
the act of expelling a person from their native land
polytheism
the worship of many gods
monotheism
belief in one God
mystery cult
a cult characterized by rites which were secret except to duly initiated worshippers
anthropomorphic
suggesting human characteristics for gods; belief that they behaved and looked like humans
patriarchs
The ancestors of the Israelites, particularly Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
prophets
persons who have a close relationship with God and communicate a divine message
Messiah
the awaited king of the Jews; Jesus Christ
pontifex maximus
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins.
oracle
an authoritative person who divines the future
divination
the art or gift of prophecy (or the pretense of prophecy) by supernatural means
mummification
embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy
covenant
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
salvation
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
scripture
sacred writings or books; passages from sacred writings
synagogue
Jewish place of worship
cultural assimilation
changes made by a group to adopt the ways of the dominant culture (larger group)
syncretism
the union (or attempted fusion) of different systems of thought or belief (especially in religion or philosophy)
artifacts
objects made and used by early humans
cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
koine
a common dialect of the Greek language that influenced the speech of all Greeks
oral tradition
pass down from one generation to another by word of mouth
myths
Traditional stories about the deeds of gods, goddesses, & heroes that explained their world.
legends
widely-told stories about the past that may or may not be factual; every culture has its own legends – its familiar, traditional stories
philosophy
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
Sumerians
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium B.C. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
Akkadians
this civilization included Semitic people living north of Sumeria; united city-states of Mesopotamia; first empire in history; established by Sargon the Great
Old Babylonian Empire
Semetic peoples that settled in central Mesopotamia. They advanced the study of mathematics and astronomy
Egypt
Society was ruled by a pharaoh considered the incarnation of the sun god who controled the Nile; they used hieroglyphics and they contributed the 365-day calender. They were polythestic and worshipped the dead
Phoenicians
Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, and engaged in widespread commerce.
Arameans
a semi-nomadic and pastoralism people who originated in what is now modern Syria during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia where they intermingled with the native Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) population.
Lydians
early civilization that occupied the western Asia minor and were responsible for the first coinage of money
Israelites (Hebrews)
The Jewish people, chosen by God to be his people and named after Israel (Jacob), from whose twelve sons the tribes of Israel descend. God formed Israel into his priestly people in their people in their exodus from the slavery of Egypt, when he made the old covenant.
Assyrians
known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt. They used ladders, weapons like: iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire
New Babylonian Empire
Empire established by the Caldeans. King Nebuchadezzar ruled from 605 to 562 B.C. Became an empire known for their scientific learning. Attacked the Jews in 587 B.C.
Persians
Empire descended from Indo-Europeans Aryan peoples that settled in modern-day Iran and began around 2000 B.C. Founded by their king, Cyrus. They allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple in 535 B.C. Became one of the largest empires in the world. Later on Darius would establish the administative system that tied the empire together.
Hellenistic Kingdoms
These kingdoms were a product of the Macedonian generals of Alexander the Great. After his death they individually seized contol of different parts of his empire and continued his policy within their territory. This involved establishing Greek cities and promoting Greek culture. They contested with each other for territory resulting in war and realignment of boundaries and rulership.
Minoans
Earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C. and remained until 1400 B.C.
Greece
The first established Empire on the European mainland beginning around 1100 B.C. after the invasion of the Dorrians. Restarted writing with the first records of the Olympic Games in 776 B.C. From this stemmed the first European literature such as The Illiad and The Odyssey
Mycenaeans
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Athens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Alexander’s Empire
Alexander succeded his father King Phillip II and established this empire. He ruled from 336 to 323 B.C. He deafeated the Near East and the eastern Mediterranean world to create one of the largest empires at the time. This empire led to the spreading of Greek culture.
Rome
This empire is said to have been established by two brothers, Romulus and Remus on April 21, 753 B.C. Through the Italian Alliance this empire was able to unify Italy. The Etruscan Kings were expelled in 509 B.C. and this empire developed a government ruled by two consuls. When the Italian allies revolted agaist this empire it granted them citizenship and unified all of Italy.
Sumarians
Said to be the first civilization, they lived on the land that is now Iraq
3000 BC
Bronze Age begins
Gilgamesh
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
The epic of Gilgamesh
The story of a legendary Sumerian king.
2350 BC
Sargon creates Mesopotamia’s first Empire.
Sargon
leader of the Akkadians, overran the sumerian city-states and set up the first empire in world history
1760 BC
the year that the Code of Hammurabi took place (Babylonia)
Hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest codes of law.
2600 BC
Indus River Valley Civilization began to rise and pyramids are built (egypt)
Hyksos
a group of nomadic invaders from southwest asia who ruled egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C. (egypt)
Hatshepsut
First female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade (egypt)
Ramses II
known as greatest pharaoh ever, ruled for 67 years, created treaty with Hittites (first treaty in history), establish ownership borders of Isreal, largest tomb, ruled while Jews were there (Egypt)
814 BC
Carthage came into power (phoenicians)
Alphabet
The Phoenicians created the ________ which was the basis for the Greek and Roman ones. 22 consonants
650 BC
silver and gold, first coinage, exchange business transactions, Eastern and Mediterranean worlds adopted coinage later (Lydians)
966 BC
Solomon founds the first Jerusalem Temple
Abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
Jacob
grandson of Abraham, son of Isaac and Rebekah, brother of Esau, and the traditional ancestor of Israelites. His name was changed to Israel, and his 12 sons became the 12 Tribes of Israel.
Moses
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
David
(Old Testament) the 2nd and greatest king of the Israelites; he united the tribes into a single nation.
Solomon
David’s son who was a great king. He built massive project in Israel including the Great Temple. His project cost the people a lot of money in taxes causing a division in Israel.
Monotheism
belief in a single God
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Tanakh
A common way of reffering to the Hebrew Bible, derived from the first letters of the Hebrew names of its three sections: Torah (T), Prophets (N), and Writings (K).
Ten Commandments
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
Exodus
the second book of the Old Testament: tells of the departure of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt led by Moses
721 BC
Northern ten tribes carried away by the Assyrians.
Tiglath-Pilezer III
Assyrian king who annexed Phoenicia, the Arameans, and Babylonia
Sennacherib
Assyrian king who burned Babylon and ordered its residents killed
Assurbanipal
king of Assyria who built a magnificent palace and library at Nineveh (668-627 BC)
587 BC
Babylonian Exile which is when the Israelites rediscovered their faith and most of the scriptures was written down
Nebuchadnezzar
(Old Testament) king of Chaldea who captured and destroyed Jerusalem and exiled the Israelites to Babylonia
535 BC
The return from exile under Persia
Cyrus
King of Persians; expanded the Persian Empire from Afghanistan to the Aegean Sea
Darius
Persian ruler who brought order to the Persian Empire. He also built roads; established a postal system; and standardized weights, measures, and coinage. (trying to unify empire)
323-30 BC
Hellenistic Era
Antigonids
a regional dynasty after the death of Alexander; ruled in Macedon and Greece.
Ptolemies
One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Egypt
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
Seleucids
One of the regional dynasties that followed the death of Alexander the Great; founded in Mesopotamia
Hippocrates
Greek physician. He is considered to be the father of medicine and the ethical standard of treating all patients known as the Hippocratic Oath.
Archimedes
This man is considered the greatest thinker of his era, a great mathematician and physicist who explained the principle of the lever and other inventions.
Revolt of Maccabees
*Judah Maccabee led an army of Jewish rebels to victory against the Seleucids
*destroyed all the “pagan” Greek altars
*Hanukkah is a celebration of this rededication of the Jewish Temple after the victory
2000-1400 bc
Dates of Minoan civilization. Known for ships