The period before writing was developed
The study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind
Tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, and household items of early people
The study of human life and culture
The term used to designate the early period of human history in which humans used simple stone tools
People who moved from place to place
When people started domesticating animals and growing food instead of hunting for animals and gathering plants
The keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
Adaptation for human use
Skilled workers who made products such as weapons and jewelry that were traded with neighboring people
The period of a widespread use of bronze
The way of life that people follow
A complex culture in which large numbers of humans share a number of common elements
Kings or queens who rule a kingdom
The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent
The basic unit of Sumerian civilization
A massive stepped tower
A government by divine authority
A large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories
Code of Hammurabi
Based on a system of strict justice (an eye for an eye)
Mesopotamian society dominated by men
A belief in many gods
Using wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were baked or dried in the sun
A family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
The most common Egyptian monarch
An administrative organization with officials and regular procedures
The steward of the whole land
A process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from rotting
The earliest Egyptian writing, "priest carvings" or "sacred writings"
A highly simplified version of hieroglyphics
Domesticated animals for food and clothing, moved regular migratory routes to provide steady sources of nourishment for their animals
Belief in one god
How is archaeology used in History?
Archaeology is used to dig up and examine artifacts to help us understand more about the history of people and their origins.
How did the Neolithic Revolution change human beings?
The Neolithic Revolution began systematic agriculture, which gave people the ability to settle down, which caused civilizations to arise, which began the process of trading goods and laid the foreground for all of civilization today.
How did the invention of writing change the study of History?
People were able to better record what went on in their civilization, so we now know much more about them than we previously would have without writing.
How is geography important to civilizations?
Geography affects the way people survive. Civilizations with good soil can provide for themselves by farming.
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. The Code of Hammurabi created one of the first sets of laws that gave people standards to live by. Pottery allowed people to store things, like liquids, which was much more difficult before.
How did the Egyptians relate to the world around them? Give specific examples.
Because Egypt was founded by the Nile River, they were rarely disturbed by anyone and had very few enemies. They were able to predict the flooding of the Nile and create efficient farming from that knowledge. They had social classes and practiced monogamy.
How did trade affect ancient civilizations?
Trade allowed civilizations to benefit from their surplus of supplies by giving them to other civilizations in return for supplies that they didn't have.
Know similarities and differences between the religions of the unit.
Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic, meaning they believed there were many gods. Persia was monotheistic, meaning they only believed in one god
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