World History Chapter 1-2

Prehistory
The period before writing was developed
Archaeology
The study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind
Artifacts
Tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, buildings, and household items of early people
Anthropology
The study of human life and culture
Paleolithic Age
The term used to designate the early period of human history in which humans used simple stone tools
Nomads
People who moved from place to place
Neolithic Revolution
When people started domesticating animals and growing food instead of hunting for animals and gathering plants
Systematic agriculture
The keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis
Domestication
Adaptation for human use
Artisans
Skilled workers who made products such as weapons and jewelry that were traded with neighboring people
Bronze Age
The period of a widespread use of bronze
Culture
The way of life that people follow
Civilization
A complex culture in which large numbers of humans share a number of common elements
Monarchs
Kings or queens who rule a kingdom
Mesopotamia
The valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent
City-state
The basic unit of Sumerian civilization
Ziggurat
A massive stepped tower
Theocracy
A government by divine authority
Empire
A large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories
Code of Hammurabi
Based on a system of strict justice (an eye for an eye)
Patriarchy
Mesopotamian society dominated by men
Polytheism
A belief in many gods
Cuneiform
Using wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were baked or dried in the sun
Dynasty
A family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family
Pharaoh
The most common Egyptian monarch
Bureaucracy
An administrative organization with officials and regular procedures
Vizier
The steward of the whole land
Mummification
A process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from rotting
Hieroglyphics
The earliest Egyptian writing, “priest carvings” or “sacred writings”
Hieratic script
A highly simplified version of hieroglyphics
Pastoral nomads
Domesticated animals for food and clothing, moved regular migratory routes to provide steady sources of nourishment for their animals
Monotheism
Belief in one god
Satraps
A governor
How is archaeology used in History?
Archaeology is used to dig up and examine artifacts to help us understand more about the history of people and their origins.
How did the Neolithic Revolution change human beings?
The Neolithic Revolution began systematic agriculture, which gave people the ability to settle down, which caused civilizations to arise, which began the process of trading goods and laid the foreground for all of civilization today.
How did the invention of writing change the study of History?
People were able to better record what went on in their civilization, so we now know much more about them than we previously would have without writing.
How is geography important to civilizations?
Geography affects the way people survive. Civilizations with good soil can provide for themselves by farming. Geography also provides protection for some civilizations, like Mesopotamia, which was surrounded by rivers that protected them from possible enemies.
How did technology change ancient people? Give specific examples.
Systematic agriculture allowed people to settle down and start civilizations. The Code of Hammurabi created one of the first sets of laws that gave people standards to live by. Pottery allowed people to store things, like liquids, which was much more difficult before.
How did the Egyptians relate to the world around them? Give specific examples.
Because Egypt was founded by the Nile River, they were rarely disturbed by anyone and had very few enemies. They were able to predict the flooding of the Nile and create efficient farming from that knowledge. They had social classes and practiced monogamy.
How did trade affect ancient civilizations?
Trade allowed civilizations to benefit from their surplus of supplies by giving them to other civilizations in return for supplies that they didn’t have.
Know similarities and differences between the religions of the unit.
Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic, meaning they believed there were many gods. Persia was monotheistic, meaning they only believed in one god. All the religions believed that there were higher being than humans that governed over their lives.
Know similarities and differences between governments of the unit.
~Mesopotamia was ruled by a monarchy (king)
~Egypt was ruled by a dynasty (power passed down to offspring)
~Persia divided their empire into satrapies (provinces) ruled by satraps (governors)
~Assyria basically lived in anarchy