World History 2 Final Exam Study Guide

renaissance
“rebirth”; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
niccolo machiavelli
Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. “End justifies the means.”
nicholas copernicus
He believed in a heliocentric, or sun-centered, conception of the universe. He argued that the Sun was at the center of the universe. The planets revolved around the sun.
galileo galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
renaissance art
3D, responded to light/shading, religious and everyday situations, active and looked real
leonardo da vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
johannes gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press
protestant reformation
series of religious actions which led to establishment of the Protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther
protestantism
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
martin luther
a German monk who took a public stand against the sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg; he believed that people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them; his actions began the Reformation
95 theses
Martin Luther’s ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
john calvin
French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
king henry VII
King of England, he split with the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England, or Anglican Church.
formation of the church of england
Know the story of King Henry VIII and him wanting his marriage annulled because he believed his wife couldn’t have a male son (he wanted a male heir), but the pope wouldn’t let him get his marriage annulled so Henry took matters into his own hands
the counter reformation
The Roman Catholic Church responding to the protestantism by starting their own movement– they stopped selling indulgences and started “Society of Jesus” or Jesuit missionaries to spread Catholic ideas.
council of trent
A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.
motives for exploration
God=spread religion, converting non-Christians, morally justified the other motives, Glory=explorers wanted fame (Renaissance state of mind), got influence for want of fame from Marco Polo (role model), Gold=wanted money
astrolabe
An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.
compass
The compass was invented in China, during the Han Dynasty
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic
Portuguese exploration
got a head start on exploration because of its location in Europe, Vasco de Gama reached India, fought Muslims for spice trade in India
vasco de gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
spanish exploration
Spain was the first to seize the opportunities (for labor, land and goods) created by the New World.
conquistadors
Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)
small pox
Disease spread by Europeans in the Americas. Led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans in North and South America
conquest of aztecs and incas
The downfall of the Aztec people caused by Hernan Cortes, disease (small pox), and the death of their leader Montezuma,
Francisco Pizarro; Pizarro and only 200 men defeat army of 30,000 using modern weapons and horses; use trickery to capture tribe leader, Atahualpa
columbian exchange effects
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.,
– Epidemic diseases (greatly impacted Natives
mercantilism
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
capitalism
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.
ming china
A major dynasty that ruled China
, The first Chinese dynasty after the foreign rule of the Mongols. tried to write over everything the Mongols did, and became a big supporter of the arts.
isolationism advantages and disadvantages
a – stopped spreading influence of europeans and preserve chinese tradition
d- led to decline and limited foreign trade
samurai
Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land.
cause of slave trade
cheap labor, africans were immune to a lot of diseases, native americans were dying in America
effect of slave trade
Numerous cultures lost generations of fittest members- the young and able. Families were torn apart, introduced guns into Africa, African labor helped colonies survive, brought expertise in agriculture, brought culture in art, music, religion, and food
triangular trade
A three way system of trade, Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
middle passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
absolute monarchy
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
louis XIV
Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
versialles
Palace built by Louis XIV. Used to control the nobles and became the center of Louis kingdom.
divine right
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
english civil war
A war between the English Parliament and Charles I, which established Parliament’s supremacy over the monarchy.
scientific method
A logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
copernicus
Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
galileo
An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
newton
An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics.
francis bacon
English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
heliocentric vs. geocentric
Heliocentric is what Galileo Galilee proved that the sun is in the center of the universe. Geocentric is what the church believes that the earth is in the center of the universe.
enlightenment philosophies
During the Enlightenment Era, philosophers such as John Locke supported the concept of a social contract. Locke viewed the social contract as a voluntary agreement between the government and the governed. In “Two Treaties on Civil Government” (1689), Locke argued that people are born with natural rights to life, liberty and property (natural law). Locke also believed that governments are created to support those rights, but that if the government fails to do so, the people may choose to change their government. Thomas Jefferson adopted these ideas in the Declaration of Independence. Another Enlightenment thinker, Montesquieu, wrote about the need for branches of government.
estates general
France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
1st estate
1% consisted of the Roman Catholic Church, Higher and lower Clergy! Did not pay taxes.
2nd estate
Nobility (wealthy) less than 2% of population, but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in govt
3rd estate
98% of population, 70% of land, urban workers= street sellers, beggars
voting rules of estate general
each group got one vote
louis XVI and marie antoinette
– King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
storming the bastille
Destruction of the prison seen as the true start of the French Revolution.
comittee on public safety
This was made up of 12 men, but Robespierre was mainly in charge. The name is ironic because they actually beheaded a ton of people in France, to insure that there were no threats to the revolution.
guillotine
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
jean paul marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
maximillian Robespierre
is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He largely dominated the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution
reign of terror
during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for “disloyalty”
napoleon
…, Overthrew French Directory in and became emperor of the French in . Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated . Returned to power briefly in but was defeated and died in exile.
effect of napoleons reign
made people take extreme measures so that it wont happen again
congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
origins of industrial revolution
technological innovations led to industrialization; began in england thanks to workers, resources, canal network, wealthy people, and government that encouraged it; textile was first to industrialize;
factors of production
Land, labor, and capital; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services
urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
rise of middle class
However, with the industrial revolution came the ability to make such items on mass, and with that, the invention of the factory came about.

Many were able to make fortunes by owning and managing factories and thus, new money was being generated.

working class in industrial revolution
many moved from the rural area to towns and got jobs in towns
factory system
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building
impacts of industrial revolution
a.Population increase, growth of middle class, standard of living increases for man
karl marx
, Believed history is the story of evolving class warfare and the only way to overthrow capitalism is for the proletariat to defeat the bourgeoisie
the proletariat
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.
motives for imperilaism
desire for resources and markets
political competetion among western nations
western belief in cultural superiority
“white mans burden”
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
british east india company
Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch, A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
opium war
Chinese attempted to prohibit the opium trade, British declared war and won against Chinese. Treaty of Nanjing, agreed to open 5 ports to British trade and limit tariffs on British goods and gave Hong Kong.
sepoy mutiny
Hindus and Muslim sepoys refused to open cartridges that came in paper waxed with animal fat for religious reasons; killed British officers, and proclaimed restoration of the Mughal authority; had different interests, and were crushed by the British
boxer rebellion
rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops.
commodore Matthew perry
Caused the Japanese emperor to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa and open Japanese ports to trade
meiji restoration
The political program in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
berlin conference
A meeting from at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country
triple alliance
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
triple entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
central powers
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire
allied powers
The alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers.
western front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
MAIN causes of WWI
militarism
alliances
imperialism
nationalism
trench warfare
made the war last longer than it needed to killed alot of people
propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
battle of verdun
the longest battle of World War I; it ended in stalemate, with both sides suffering hundreds of thousands of casualties
woodrow wilson
President of the United States During/After WWI
league of nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
self determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
treaty of versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
tsar nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin.
cause of revolution
the slow pace of reforms by russian czars
desire for better living conditions and freedoms
the growth of revolutionary groups
bolsheviks
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia
red army and white army
civil war in russia after bolsheviks accepted treaty. white army included some army leaders, political opponents of bolsheviks and wealthy russians. the red army was bolsheviks
russian civil war
conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world’s first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death.
october revolution
Bolsheviks led by LEon Trotsky and Lenin claimed power in name of the soviets and proclaimed a full-scale revolution with support of workers and troops
marxism-leninism
the political and economic philosophy of the Bolsheviks, expounded by Vladimir Lenin, which looked to an uprising of the proletariat that would abolish private property and enforce social equality
formation of the soviet union
russia reunited with several neighboring lands and the new country was called the soviet union
communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
credit
arrangement in which a purchaser borrows money from a bank or other lender and pays it back over time
black tuesday
date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
FDR
…, Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal.
new deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
great depression
A severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.
anti-comintern pact
treaty between Germany and Japan promising a common front against communism
nanjing massacre
the murder of as many as 300,000 Chinese men, women, and children by Japanese troops
benito mussolini
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
adolf hitler
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
joseph stalin
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union
5-year plans
Stalin’s plan to build up Russia’s military and industry
totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
fascism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
anti-semitism
A mindset that people of Jewish heritage were inferior to other races
nuremburg laws
Laws that stripped German Jews of citizenship and all civil rights
political purges
due to stalin’s paranoia & want for control; targets arrested & put on trail for (phony) crimes against state
appeasement
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain’s policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
winston churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. disagreed with chamberlain
axis powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II
nonagression pact
agreement between germany and russia not to fight each other
blitzkrieg
“Lighting war”, typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland
allied powers
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
battle of britain
…, the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it, wanted to tire british out
isolationism
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
operation barbarossa
Codename for Nazi Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
attack on pearl harbor
Bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii by Japan on December 7, 1941. The Japanese were hoping to cripple the American fleet, which had been enforcing Embargo, which denied Japan the raw materials it needed to increase their power and this attack failed leading to Japan’s defeat.
holocaust
Hitler’s mass extermination of the Jews and other undesirables.
d-day
Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops ) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.

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