World History 1 Chapter 4

Knossos
The capital of the ancient Minoan civilization; located on the island of Crete off the coast of present-day Greece.
Shrine
areas dedicated to the honor of gods and goddesses
Fresco
watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
Trojan War
in Greek epic poems and myths, a ten-year war between Mycenae and the city of Troy in Asia Minor
Straits
narrow water passages that connect seas, in this case the straits connected the Mediterranean and Black seas which caused the disputes between the Myceneans and Trojans and according to historians, caused the actual Trojan war
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Polis
Greek city-state
Acropolis
highest and most fortified point within a Greek city-state
Citizen
male native born free residents over the age of 30
Monarchy
a government in which a hereditary ruler exercises central power
Aristocracy
rule by hereditary landholding elite
Oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Phalanx
a massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Athens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
Democracy
Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representative
Tyrant
in ancient Greece, a ruler who had seized power without legal right to it
Legislative
lawmaking
Alliance
formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Direct Democracy
citizens take part in day to day government affairs
Stipend
fixed salary
Jury
a body of citizens sworn to give a true verdict according to the evidence presented in a court of law
Ostracism
practice used in ancient Greece to banish or send away a public figure who threatened democracy
Philosopher
someone who uses reason to understand the world; in Greece, the earliest philosophers used reason to explain natural events
Logic
reasoned and reasonable judgment
Rhetoric
the art of using language effectively and persuasively
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Plato
one of Socrates’ students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. Plato explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
Aristotle
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato’s metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena
Tragedies
the first Greek dramas; presented in a trilogy … serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayal.
Comedies
Humorous plays that mocked people or customs.
Herodotus
the ancient Greek known as the father of history
Alexander the Great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley
Philip 2
came to thrown for Macedonia, built powerful army that crushed the Greeks, gained control of all of Greece
Assassination
murder of a public figure, usually for political reasons
Assimilated
absorb or adapt another culture
Alexandria
an ancient Hellenistic city in Egypt
Pythagoras
derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle
Heliocentric
sun centered
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
Hippocrates
“Founder of Medicine” During the Golden Age in Greece he was a scientist that believed all diseases came from natural causes. He also had high ideals for physicians & an oath was made that is still used today.