World History AP – Chapter 3 Notes

Early China
[ 1200-250 BCE ]
– Isolated from other civilizations
– China relied on tight-knit *patriarchal families* for land, power, organization ancestor worship
– landed nobles provided courts of justice and organized military troops
– *specialization of emperor’s ministers*

*Imperial Government* : very active in economy and society
– managed productions of Iron & Salt
– storing grain and rice : in caution of unsuccessful harvests
– sponsored irrigation systems
– tax peasants -> source of incredible physical work/labor (build temples, Great Wall, sculptures, etc.)

– China most urbanized of classical civilizations
– towns of 10,000+ people

– Balance of opposites : Yin-Yang [ 300 BCE ]
Classical Chinese history begins around 700 BCE.

Confucius (Kong Fuzi)
[ 551-478 BCE ]
: believed in obedience and respect as the way of living; make education accessible to all

*Analects* : collection of Confuscius sayings

Confucianism
: *system of ethics* (not a religion, a belief on how to live)

Beliefs :
– advocated rule by highly educated; exclusive *male elites*
– established norms of all aspects of Chinese life
– stress *respect for elders*
– importance of art, music, *calligraphy*
– stressed *harmony of nature* (every feature balanced by an opposite; *Yin-Yang*)
– *rank not by birth*; *education accessible* to all talented & intelligent members of society
– cannot permanently conquer with force; kindness towards people and protection of ritual interests is key

– Rulers shouldn’t be greedy; stressing true happiness rests in doing good for all, not individual gain
– *Idea of gentlemen*; man always courteous and eager for service and anxious to learn

– Upper-class Confucianism discouraged notion of temples soaring to the heavens

Confucian Social System
– scholar (gentry) aka Shi
– laboring masses, peasants, artisans -> silks, jewelry, leather goods
– women; *merchants* : wealthy but low class
Zhou Dynasty
[ 1122-256 BCE ] : Longest of dynasties
– territorial expansion to Yang Zi River Valley
– ruled through alliances with landed families
– *Feudal Period* : provide troops and tax revenues to Central Government -> grants of land given
– relied heavily on loyalty of regional supporters (because of land expansion; hard for central government to manage)

*The King* : ruler of feudal monarchy

– local leaders began to pull away
– numerous invasions

*Greater Cultural Unity*:
– Heaven -> Zhou emperors aka. *Sons of Heaven*
– banning human sacrifice -> more restrained ceremonies to worship gods
– Mandarin Chinese (pretty much formal language at the time and still is today)
– *Chopsticks* : end of Zhou Dynasty; symbolize respect

*Cultural unity lead the empire to fail* :
– Regional rulers formed -> independent armies
– Emperor = just a figure head; so far away couldn’t do anything about it.

Feudalism
: the allocation of a certain area or region to a specific individual who becomes the *established leader of that region.*

(refers to Feudal Period in Zhou Dynasty)

Middle Kingdom
: stretched from Huang He to north; Yang Zi to south

2 Main Agriculture:
– wheat (north)
– rice (south)

– Confucius set central beliefs and political ethics throughout Middle Kingdom

Shi
“Shi Class” : scholars/administrators – gentlemen
Era of Warring States
[ 402-201 BCE ] : mass chaos between China’s people trying to overthrow
– Legalism idea formed
Qin Dynasty
[ 221 : 202 BCE ]
– expanded territory to present day Hong Kong
– local power effaced; provinces established -> selected officials from non-aristocratic groups (make sure they follow under his rule; never betray; trust)
– gave China its name

*Shi Huangdi* : emperor of Qin Dynasty (first emperor)

– *National Census* : data for calculating tax & labor services
– standardized coinage
– *Silk Cloth* manufacturing
– *burning Confucius books*

– Shi punished many and killed intellects (always worried he wouldn’t be able to catch’em all)
– started to build Great Wall; 3000 miles
– regulation of cart axle lengths (carriage road regulations)

Han Dynasty
[ 200 BCE – 220 CE ]
– expanded territory to Korea, Indo-China, & Central Asia
– closer contact with India & Pathia Empire in Middle East
– shrines build -> worship Confucius as a god
– *Examinations* : Chinese literacy & law exam; Chinese political tradition : *test to become bureaucrat*
– 2 centuries, control weakened invasion from Central Asia

*Xiong Nu* : [ 220-589 CE ]
– nomadic people who invaded China

*Pathia Empire* : major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq

*Xi’an* : Han capital
– 100,000 people within walls
– 250,000 people outside walls and neighboring villages

Wu di
[ 140-87 BCE ] : forced peace throughout Asia : *emperor of Han Dynasty*
– supports Confucianism
Menice (Meng Ko)
: as a Chinese philosopher who is the most famous Confucian after Confucius

– emphasized goodness of human nature
– legitimate for peasants to rebel against oppressive rulers

Daoism/Taoism
: (religion rather than set of ethics) spiritual alternative to Confucianism; includes *natures mystery*
– don’t worry about politics or academics
– strong Buddhists influence from India

– many emperors favored Daoism because no threat to overthrow of government
– founder *Lao Zi*

Chinese Innovations/technological advancements
– Ox-drawn plows [ 300 BCE ]
– Compasses
– *Silk production* : strongly successful in world trade of that period -> *Silk Roads*
– developed accurate calendar [ 444 BCE ]
– collar : animals, pull wagons without choking
– pulleys / winding gears
– lamps
– iron tools, textiles, pottery

During Han Dynasty:
– *First water-powered mills*
– Paper invented

Primogeniture
: practice of the *oldest male child* inherited property and position. (due to hierarchical family order)
5 Classics (Art)
: treaties, speeches, other political materials, discussion of etiquette, ceremony, calligraphy art form

– bronze, pottery, jade, ivory, silk screens
– early part of Zhou Dynasty
– Class of Songs : 300 poems

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