Western Civilization Midterm

Virgil’s Aeneid was important because:
It connected Roman history to the heroic narrative of the Trojan War
Prior to the establishment of Rome as a dominant state in Italy it was:
The Etruscans (the skilled metal workers) who lived there.
The geographic site of Rome had a lot of advantages. What was the biggest?
The biggest advantage was that it was on a hill that protected them from their enemies.
The legend that ended the Roman monarchy and created the founding of the republic was:
The Rape of Lucretia
In the early 5th century there was a Plebian rebellion. What was the result?
The result was that the Patricians accepted the tribunes and written laws.
The Plebian’s 12 tables are important because:
It was a codification of existing laws for all to see and obey.
Why did the Romans regard Carthage as a threat?
Because they had the strongest navy and the Mediterranean controlled vast resources in different colonies.
During the Second Punic War:
Hannibal brought his entire army (including elephants) over the alps.
After Rome defeated Carthage twice:
A Third Punic War marked the breaching of the wall of Carthage, where all the citizens were butchered and the survivors were sold into slavery. (Cato thought Carthage must be destroyed).
Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir but:
Octavian had to fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents.
Although the Roman Republic had greatly increased the territory ruled by Rome:
Under the emperors even more territory was added to the empire with Augustus adding more than any other ruler.
Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 CE were called the “Five Good Emperors” because they:
Were capable administrators who governed successfully.
Pax Romana refers to the:
200 years of relative peace.
The Romans were the first to use:
Concrete on a massive scale.
One way that the Romans were able to maintain their empire was through:
The system of roads throughout the empire.
How were the Romans able to support large populations?
The construction of a system of aqueducts allowed a steady supply of portable water to the cities.
Roman law consisted of three branches that were called:
Civil law, natural law, and law of the nations.
By the third century, it became obvious that:
Rome’s western and eastern provinces could not be controlled by a single central government.
The Dead Sea Scrolls have helped historians to understand the religious climate of the first century C.E. by:
Demonstrating the diversity of Jewish religious practice and belief.
New cultural influences in late antiquity included:
The intellectual developments of the Islamic world. (Christianity, Byzantine Empire, and Islam)
One of the problems of the 3rd century caused by Rome’s expansion was the:
-fact that the empire was no longer centered on Rome
-ever increasing number of people claiming Roman citizenship
-dispersal of resources to the far-flung provinces of the empire
-lack of defensible borders
During the third century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of the:
‘Barracks Emperors’ when Rome had 26 emperors in about 50 years.
The tetrarchy was the split of Rome into halves and the creation of:
Anaugustus’ in the West and in the East who were assisted and would be succeeded by the Caesars.
Economic reforms introduced by the early fourth century Roman Empire included:
Wage and price controls fixed by government.
What were the general results of the doctrinal quarrels of the early centuries?
The dogmas of the Christian Church gradually became fixed.
One result of the Council of Nicea was to:
– declare Arianism a heresy
– establish the validity of church councils
– establish a means of setting the biblical canon
– establish the close relationship between church and emperor
Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in early 4th century to being the recognized faith of the empire, this last step was the result of the action by the emperor:
Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship.
Rome was threatened in the mid-fifth century by the Huns under their leader:
Attila and the huns.
The traditional date for the fall of Rome is:
476 CE
Jerome’s most lasting contribution to western Christian culture was:
His translation of the bible into Latin.
The monastic way of life in the west was influenced greatly by the establishment of a set of rules written by:
Benedict
The seventh century C.E. was a turning point in the history of western civilizations because:
The Greco-Roman world of antiquity divided into Byzantine, Islamic and Latin Christian realms.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because:
The Byzantine empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire.
The stability of the Byzantine government was the product of:
-Efficient bureaucracy
or
-Highly centralized government
-Predictable system of succession to the imperial throne
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighty century C.E. was about the:
Use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects. (Icons)
The Byzantine church of Santa Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it:
Placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape.
The word Islam means:
Submission
The Hijrah (Hegira) refers to the prophet Muhammad’s move from:
Mecca to Medina
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship:
Muhammad
The Qur’an contains:
Revelations sent by God to Muhammad.
The Shiite party arose among Muslims became:
A dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in 7th century Arabia.
Alcuin and his associates contributed significantly to literacy even until today by:
Copying corrected versions of biblical texts and investing Carolingian miniscule script in the process.
Which was the most significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world?
The Coronation of the Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800.
Why did the Carolingian empire collapse during the ninth century?
-Because of the structural limits of its expansion had been reached
-Because of Viking raids
-Because of the division of the empire among all legitimate heirs of Louis
-Because the Scandinavian trade system broke down
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of:
Ethnic tensions among Arabs, Turks, Berbers, and Persians. (Fractured political unity)
One factor that contributed to the increase in agricultural output in the medieval period was:
A rise in average temperature that allowed for a longer growing season.
The rotation of crops:
Spread labor evenly over the course of the year.
The Christian Church condemned money lending as:
Usurious
William the conqueror was so politically innovative in that he:
Used the highly centralized English administrative authority combined with the feudal structures of France.
The term feudal comes from the Latin feudum, which refers to:
“Fief” or “a gift that created a contractual relationship.”
In 1059, Pope Nicholas II issued a new decree on papal elections, which gave the power to elect future popes to the:
College of Cardinals
The compromise that ended the Investiture Conflict was known as the:
Concordat of Worms
The expansion of the Byzantine empire during the 10th and early 11th centuries was assisted by:
Christian missionary activity in Russia and the Balkans.
Why did Pope Urban II call for the first crusade?
To regain the Holy Land from the Muslims.
One of the physicians in the Muslim world was known as:
Avicenna
One of the greatest scholars that contributed to the literary world was named:
Moses Maimonides