Washington, Adams, Jefferson Presidencies
Washington, Adams,and Jefferson Presidencies Washington Inauguration elected by electoral college unanimously April 30, 1789 1st real test of constitution defined lots of roles and traditions of executive Washington’s Crew Sec.Of State- Jefferson Sec.Of Treasury- Hamilton Sec.
Of War- Henry Knox Attorney General- Edmund Randolph Pres. met with these men regularly for advice on major policies Creating Court System only court mentioned in the constitution was supreme court Judiciary act of 1789- one chief justice and 5 associate judges could make decisions on constitutionality 3 district courts and three circuit courts of appeals Hamilton to address the govt. financial difficulties assumption- consolidate debts from states to natl. govt. and pay off protect the “infant” industries- high tariffs to collect duties on all imported goods and limit competition natl. bank- depositing govt. funds and print bank notes to stabilize US currency Arguments of the national bank Elastic clause- can create laws which are necessary and proper loose constructionist constitution permitted everything not expressly forbidden Washington agreed
Feared that states would lose power that the federal govt. gained strict constructionist forbade everything it didn’t permit weak central govt. in favor of states Birth of Political Parties Federalist- Hamilton, Adams and Marshall aristocracy encouraged industry favored alliance w/ great Britain strong central govt. Dem-Republicans-Jefferson and Madison associated w/ masses development of agriculture Washington and NA’s Indian intercourse act 1790- congress regulate trade w/ Indians and western land acquired by treaty Americans continued to settle on Indian lands ed to bloody scrimmages TIMMMMMMMMBBBBEERRRRRRR! Battle of Fall Timbers NW Ohio US army led by General Anthony Wayne defeated some Indians Treaty of Greenville Ohio territory given to Americans and open to settlement Whiskey Rebellion angered by excise tax on distilled whiskey small band of PA farmers march toward Philly attacking tax collectors on the way Washington sent 15,000 troops led by Hamilton causes rebellion to collapse Jefferson disagrees new govt proves effective in handling crisis West Side
After states gave up western land claims congress encouraged western settlement Public Land Act (1796) orderly procedures for dividing selling federal lands at a reasonable price VT ’91 KY ’92 TN ’96 Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) believed America could not handle a European war went against popular belief and chose to stay out of war Jefferson resigned from the cabinet in disagreement Disrespecting Washington French minister Edmond Genet continued pressure Washington after Proclamation broke all and talked directly to the people to support the French WA wanted ambassador removed
Jefferson supported the removal french recalled Genet remained in US and became citizen Jay Treaty (1794) Jay was sent to Britain to talk about seizures of US ships Britain agreed to withdraw troops and pay damages for ships America agreed to pay debts angered French supporters maintained neutrality Pinckney Treaty effect of Jay Treaty Spain wanted to consolidate holdings in America Thomas pinckney minister to Spain Spain agreed to open lower Mississippi and New Orleans to America without paying duties Spain agreed to accept US claims to Florida’s northern boundary US agreed on nonaggression in West
Washington’s Farewell Address wrote letter to American people warned about : not getting into European affairs, no political parties, no permanent alliances, avoid sectionalism left after two terms and set the precedent for future presidents Election of 1796 active political parties participated in election federalist candidate- John Adams Dem-Republican candidate-Jefferson Adams won by three votes Jefferson became vice president runner-up becomes vice presidents XYZ Affair French warships and privateers began seizing American merchant ships Adams sent delegation to Paris to negotiate inisters known as XY and Z requested bribes to enter negotiations America Reacts millions for defense but not one cent for tribute most Americans were outraged and wanted war with France Adams popularity sky rocketed when he refused and raised and army led by Hamilton waged undeclared naval war convention of 1800- no more alliance and don’t have to pay for cargo Federalist strengthen public anger against France strengthened the federalist in congress hoped to enact laws to limit their political opponents
Naturalization Act ncreased the years needed to become a US from 5 to 14 years most immigrants voted Dem-Republican Violating Rights to prevent french revolutionaires from entering the country and crippling Dem-Republicans Alien acts- authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous Sedition act- made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize govt. KY and VA resolutions state legislatures enacted nullifying laws of alien and sedition acts KY and VA adopted a resolution- written by Jefferson and Madison both declare states had a right to nullify a federal law Judiciary Act of 1801 o ensure that federalists would continue to control courts Adams used this to add last minute appointments known as “midnight judges” Marbury v. Madison John Marshall ruled that supreme court did not have power over Jefferson judiciary act of 1789 unconstitutional Jefferson was awarded victory in exchange for Judicial Review Election of 1800 federalists lost popularity hatred of alien and sedition acts taxes for maintaining an army republicans nominated Aaron Burr and Jefferson federalists nominated John Adams Revolution of 1800
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron burr tied with 73 votes Hamilton supported Jefferson and HOR elected Jefferson first transition from 1 party to other w/o violence indication constitution would endure federalists changed power Dem-Republicans Ease of Transition maintained national bank and debt repayment attempted to win trust of federalists carried out neutrality policies set by Washington and Adams Republican Principles reduce military eliminated a number of federal jobs repealed excise taxes lowered national debt only republicans were named to his cabinet
Louisiana Territory french gained territory from Spanish napoleon wanted to sell the land fighting British stopping rebellion in Santo Domingo US interested Spanish officials revoked right of deposit duty free use of New Orleans prevent America from getting involved in European affairs. Lewis and Clark started in St. Louis in 1804 and arrived on west coast in 1806 increased geographic and scientific knowledge of new territory strengthened us claims to Oregon territory improved relations with natives developed maps and land routes Negotiation for the Territory
Jefferson sent ministers to France to accept an offer no higher than 10 million no deal British American alliance napoleon offered 15 million minister accepted purchase of louisiana territory americans approved power to purchase land not in constitution purchased land for good of country used power to make treaties senate ratified Consequences of Purchase doubled size of country remove foreign presence from borders extension of western lands strengthened Jefferson vision of agrarian society increased Jefferson’s popularity showed federalists to be weak.