William Crawford - he ran as a Democratic Republican candidate for Preside .NET of the United States in 1 824; his greatest political enemy was John C. Calhoun, who was initially in favor of the protective e tariff, internal improvements, & the national bank; he returned to Georgia and was appointed judge of the northern circuit court in 1827 6.
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In the e Election of 1 824, he was elected vice president under John Quince Adams. In the Election of 1828, he retained the vice preside once, this time under Andrew Jackson 8. Revolution of 1828 - balance of power shifting from the East to expanding west. America, until now, had been ruled by educated wee Itty elites -? Federalist shippers and Jeffersonian planters 9. Spoils System - the method of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power. President Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing g many people and replacing them with his own 0.
Tariff of Abominations - In 1828, the United States government increased the prices of their imported goods by as much as 50 percent. South Carolina asserted that these taxes on imports were unfair a s a tax on Southern agriculture for the benefit of Northern industry 11 . Denmark Vessel - He was a free black slave who lived in the Carolinas and led a slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822. This slave rebellion was part of what led to the anxieties of the South especially in South Carolina. The Missouri Compromise and the slave rebellion caused the South to worry about Federal government interfere CE in slavery 12.
South Carolina Exposition & Protest - It was drafted secretly by Episodes .NET John C. Calhoun, and presented to the state's House of Representatives on December 1 9 by a special committee charged WI the formulating a response to the federal protective tariff passed earlier that year. Although not adopted by the House, 4,000 coop sees of the states' rights manifesto were printed and distributed at state expense; it proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress 3.
Nullification - the streetlights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize e or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress 14. Tariff of 1832 - it lowered duties to 35% from about 50%, or the 1824 level ; it fell far short of meeting all of the Southern demands; South Carolina called upon state legislature to make necessary mil tart preparations if President Jackson tried to send troops to enforce this act 15.
Tariff of 1833 -? it was authored by Henry Clay, and it was a compromise o n duties; it defused the sectional crisis and set out timetable for staged reductions in import duties that put these taxes on a d onward path until 1 860 16. Force Bill - it would allow the President of the United States to enforce a f deader law without permission of Congress; it also gave humorists to use the navy to board ships and collect duties before the eye reach S. C. 17.
Five Civilized Tribes - the Indian nations (the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choc scats, Creeks, and Seminole) that lived in the Southeastern United States until the 1 8205, most of whom were removed to the Indian Territory from 183042; most of them had et up formal governments before removal modeled after the U. S. Government NT 18. Indian Removal Act - Congress orders that all indigenous people living in t he southeastern part Of the country be relocated to a newly designated territory west of the Mississippi River 19.
Trail of Tears - the forcible relocation and movement of Native Americans , including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole,and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, fro m their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States 20. Bureau of Indian Affairs - a division of the Department of the Interior that administers federal programs benefiting Native Americanization. 21 . Black Hawk - the leader of a faction of Auk and Fox Indians. Antagonistic to whites settling in his people's territory, he joined the British in several battles in the War of 1812.
In 1832, he led his pep plea across the Mississippi to resist further white encroachments. The Illinois militia began attacking Black Hawk and his people in 1832, and Black Hawk was taken prisoner the following year. 22. Solaces - rose to prominence during the Second Seminole War, where his brilliant guerrilla tactics in the Florida swamps earned him the admiration and respect of the many United States Army office RSI who tried to capture him. Solaces and other Seminole refused to sign the Treaty Of Fort Gibson, which would have ceded their Florida homeland.
In December 1835, during what became known as the Second Seminole War (183542), Solaces and a baa ND followers ambushed and killed a government agent, Wiley Thompson, and several others. Army troops arrested him in Cot beer 1837, while under a flag of truce. He was imprisoned, first at Fort Marion in SST. Augustine, Florida, and later at Fort Mom letter, near Charleston, South Carolina 23. 2nd Bank of the US - was the most powerful bank in the country. Its pres dent, Nicholas Fiddle, set policies that controlled the country's money supply. President Jackson disliked the bank. He thought t had too much power.
He felt that the bank's policies favored wealthy people and hurt the average person. To operate, the bank needed a charter from the federal government. Its charter was scheduled to expire in 1836. But Fiddle asked Congress to Rene ewe it in 1832. That was an election year. Fiddle thought that Jackson would agree to the renewal and not risk being defeated. But Jackson took the risk. Jackson vetoed Congress's renewal of the bank's charter. He said the bank was unconstitutional al. The Supreme Court had ruled that the bank was constitutional. But Jackson claimed that elected officials could judge whether a law was constitutional for themselves.
They did not have to rely on the Court. Jackson's opposition to the bank was a major sis u in the 1832 election. The people agreed with Jackson. After Jackson worn, he set out to destroy the bank. He took federal m none out of the national bank and put it in state banks. As a result, the national bank went out of existence 24. Nicholas Fiddle - became president of the Second Bank of the United Stats sees in 1823, vowing to create an actual national currency and to achieve "a more enlarged development of its resources and a wider extension of its sphere of usefulness. 25. Bank Charter - Searching for an issue to use against Jackson in the preside initial campaign of 1832, Clay forced Jackson's hand on the Bank. Clay convinced Fiddle to apply to Congress for a new chart err, even though the current charter would not expire until 1836. Confident of congressional approval, Clay reasoned that he had Jackson trapped. If Jackson went along with he new charter, Clay could take credit for the measure. If he vetoed it, Clay co old attack Jackson as the enemy of a sound banking system. Clay's clever strategy backfired.
Jackson turned on him and t he Bank with a vengeance. As he told his heir apparent, "The bank, Mr.. Van Burden, is trying to kill me, but I will kill it! " Jacks n and his advisers realized that the Bank was vulnerable as a symbol of privileged monopoly, a monstrous institution that d prided common Americans of their right to compete equally for economic advantage. Moreover, many of these advisers were also state bankers and local developers, who caked Jackson precisely because they wanted to be free of federal restraints on their business activities. 26.
Bank Veto - On July 10, 1832, Jackson vetoed the recharging bill for the B ann. in a message that appealed both to state bankers and to foes Of all banks. He took a ringing "stand against all new grants Of monopolies an d exclusive privileges, against any prostitution of our Government to the advancement of the few at the expense of the many. " 27. Intimations Party - It was based on distrust and dislike of the secretive Freemasons. Outrage reached a fever pitch in the I ate asses and early asses, fueled by the 1826 disappearance of William Morgan, a bricklayer who had written a book about the society's alleged secrets.
The Masons were rumored to have murdered him. In 1831, the is party became the first to select its presidential nominee at a national convention, and the first to issue a party platform. Thee r candidate William Wire carried Vermont in 1832 but could not even come close to ousting Andrew Jackson from the presidency y. The party soon died out, and many members became Whig. 28. Democratic Party - Favored local rule, Favored Limited Go Vermont, Favored Free Trade, Favored Equal Economic Opportunity for White Males, Opposed Monopolies, Opposed a National Bank, Opposed High Tariffs, Opposed High Land Prices. 9. Pet banks - On September 1 0, 1833, Jackson removed all federal funds from the Second B ann. of the U. S. , redistributing them to these various state banks 30. Specie Circular -? in 1836, Prestidigitation authorized the Treasury to issue a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard," or metallic, money. This drastic SST pep slammed the brakes on the speculative boom, a kneecapping change of direction that contributed to a financial panic and CRA h in 1837
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