Define Values. Critically evaluate “Allport-Vernon” classification of values. How values affectthe business processes. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct orend-state of existence” (Rokeach, 1973). When the values are ranked in terms of theirintensity, i. e. , when the value are prioritized in terms of their intensity, it is called valuesystem.
Types of values include ethical/moral values, doctrinal/ideological (political,religious) values, social values, and aesthetic values. Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute signifies that amode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifieshow important it is. Ranking an individual’s values in terms of their intensity equals thatperson’s value system. Values build the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation of anindividual, since; value has a great impact on perceptions.
Values shape relationships,behaviors, and choices. The more positive our values, more positive are people’s actions. Asignificant portion of the values an individual holds is established in the early years—fromparents, teachers, friends, and others. Allport-Vernon classification of values: 1. Theoretical: Interest in the discovery of truth through reasoning and systematicthinking. 2. Economic: Interest in usefulness and practicality, including the accumulation of wealth. 3. Aesthetic:
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Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony. 4. Social: Interest in people and human relationships. 5. Political: Interest in gaining power and influencing other people. 6. Religious: Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a whole. Work behavior across cultures and businesses In every culture, there are different sets of attitudes and values which affect behavior. Similarly, every individual has a set of attitudes and beliefs – filters through which he/sheviews management situations within organizational context.
Managerial beliefs, attitudesand values can affect organizations positively or negatively. Managers portray trust andrespect in their employees in different ways in different cultures. This is a function of theirown cultural backgrounds. For example, managers from specific culturestend to focusonly on the behavior that takes place at work, in contrast to managers from diffused cultures who focus on wider range of behavior including employees’ private and
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