Us Survey Essay questions

What were the consequences of the development of farming for Native American communities. In your response, identify at least 1 positive and 1 negative consequence and the impact of each.
One positive consequence- communities were societies becoming more sedentary; groups of people could stay put because their main source work is also their food. A negative consequence of the development of farming for the Native American communities were large groups had more illnesses, and consuming the same food all the time is bad.
What were some of the key differences among Native American societies (before European colonization) in regions like the Plains, Eastern Woodlands, and Southwest?
Living styles were the biggest differences based on if they were hunters or gatherers. Eastern Woodlands- permanent settlement where farming was the main source of substance, and where hunting was supplemental. The Pacific Northwest- both hunters and gatherers. Great Plains- nomadic hunting buffalo for the majority. Southwest societies- mainly gathered plants. Based on the groups base for food also was the factor for how big these groups could be. Another difference- roles of gender. The Eastern Woodlands were a matrilineal society which means that decent goes through the women’s side. In this group, the women farmed and the men hunted, and because farming was the more prominent form of sustenance, women had more power. The Pacific Northwest- patrilineal society so decent goes through the male’s side. This more traditional way of living gave more power to the man because the women gathered and the men hunted.
What led Europeans to the period of exploration and colonization? Identify and discuss 3 of the reasons.
The Renaissance was one of the causes for exploration because people were interested in what was out there and what we as people are capable of. Another cause for exploration and colonization was trade routes. People were interested in finding a faster, safer, cheaper, easier way to China and India. Another cause would be religious issues mainly from the Reformation. With the revolt in the Catholic Church and rise in Protestantism, Catholics, Quakers, and Pilgrims were being persecuted. This created a Push and Pull Factor towards colonization elsewhere.
How did Spanish, English, and French patterns of colonization differ from each other? In your response, include why each group undertook colonization, the type of colonies they established, and the different relationships they formed with Native Americans
Spanish: wanted to find a good route to Asia/China/India. They wanted a way to transport goods, people, and a good trade route as well. They established an Urban civilization, many towns. Many cities were better than many other cities in North America, and Europe. gave the Indians certain rights within their society and they also wanted them to convert to their beliefs. The Spanish owe much of their success to the Indians. English: looking for land, religious freedom, and wealth. wanted their own freedoms. They established a settler society, meaning they settled where they pleased and mostly lived off of the land. They formed negative relationships with the Native Americans, and they believed they had no use for them, or their help. French:•
Think about the concept of civilization and the readings by Thomas Morton and the Micmac leader. These contain information about what the British, French, and native peoples thought made a society civilized. What kinds of differences existed and why?
Native people think that a simple life, where they have just enough to be happy, respect and helpfulness is the make-up of a civilized society, content with their religion. thought it was funny the French were coming to the Native lands and were talking about how great their country is.
The French think being civilized is having the luxury of extra stuff.
Thomas Morton from New England thought any civilization should have religion and a protestant religion at that.
When France and Britain came to create colonies they wanted to impose their religion and culture on the natives
Identify the 4 colonial regions discussed in class. Then, choose 1 colony to focus on, and identify the signifying characteristics of that colony. For instance, include information like how and why it was founded, government formed, religion established, focus of economy, family structure/gender relationships, presence of slavery, etc.
The four colonial regions discussed in class were the New England, Middle Colonies, Chesapeake, and the Southern Colonies. The Chesapeake colonies- mainly from Virginia and Maryland where they received a charter from the crown mainly to focus on money by finding gold but became the focus after nearly half the population died after the first year. These wealthy men were coming intending to farm. Their attention turned to planting tobacco which was extremely labor intensive. This resulted in a larger desire for indentured servants. These people were mainly Anglican and Maryland believed in proprietary. There were nearly 4 times as many men as there were women back then. So, women that did live there had more power.
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In which English colony did people have the most freedom? Explain. You may choose 1 of the 4 colonial regions discussed in class OR 1 of the 13 original colonies.
the Middle Colonies . The majority of the people who went there had nothing to lose, and grew grain for their own use and to sell. While the region profited from slave trade, it was a minor institution in this specific regions. Also, the relationships with the Native Americans were civil, and men and women were more equal than when comparing to other regions
What elements of the Great Awakening helped to inspire the enlargement of the public sphere?
George whitfield had a huge impact on the great awakening. He believed people could get rid of their sins, each person had an inner light in them, and that people could be saved. During this time church was popular and very emotional. Just very positive and encouraging time.
What key events sharpened the divisions between Britain and the colonists in the late 1760s and early 1770s?
The single most important act leading to the Revolution was the Stamp Act in 1765. This was a tax requiring official stamps on published goods, which was the first direct tax. One key event that separated the colonist and britian is when britian gave all the won land to the Indians after the French and indian war. The colonist did not understand why they were left with nothing when they fought as well. Other things like all the acts that were put on the colonist when they were told that they didn’t have to pay for the war debt. Then they were being taxed left and right.
Why did the colonists increasingly believe that British rule threatened their liberty
taxing them without end, not looking out for the colonists best interest, didn’t understand because they were so far away, they had no representation in congress
What unified the colonists and what divided them at the time of the Revolution?
During the revolution the colonist were brought together because they all had the same goal in mind. Every colonist at this point want equal rights, equal freedom, they wanted respect and to be taken seriously. So when being taxed and treated un fair by the british the coloist new the only way to win this war was to come together.
Identify 1-2 strengths and 1-2 weaknesses that each side had during the Revolution, and explain how the Americans eventually prevailed.
Britain had strengths in size and power, they had more soldiers and had a lot of people on their side, including Indians. their weaknesses- Britain had to win outright to take its power back while the colonies just had tie. The distance was a weakness also. American strength was they knew the land and they believed in what they were fighting for. But they were poorly organized and short on men
Fights for freedom in the 17th century that pitted colonists against colonists/Native Americans/English (the exam will ask about one of these; you will not know which ahead of time). Identify one of these “fights,” and explain why you think it had the most impact during this time.
Colonists vs. English- Glorious Revolution: Overthrow of King James, established parliamentarian supremacy once and for all and secured the protestant succession to the throne. Colonists vs. Colonists
Witch Trials: The witch’s alleged power challenged both God’s will and the standing of men as heads of family and rulers of society.
Colonists vs. Native Americans- Pequot War: The white population was expanding and was trying to take out Indian tribes and settlements. The Pequot were exterminated or sold into slavery
Define the term “salutary neglect.” Discuss what life was like in the colonies under it, why it ended, and what changes ensued.
Salutary neglect is a loose enforcement of many ideas. Economically, this meant that even though navigational acts and mercantilism were in effect, Britain was making money so it was not being followed through. Politically, this means that colonists believe they are self-reliant and have their own forms of government. The problem with this legislature when it becomes powerful is that it contradicts legislature from parliament. Salutary neglect stops because Britain needs to increase control over the colonies because they are in debt.
Discuss at least 1 way that the American economy might potentially improve after the Revolution and 1 way that it might be negatively impacted.
American economy might potentially improve after the Revolution- the ability to find new buyers since they could only trade with Britain in the past. A negative impact- they could not use the same trade routes, and there was no guaranteed trade like they had with Britain. they were still stealing their boats
The Articles of Confederation are much maligned today, but they also had some great achievements. Identify at least 2 of the problems with the Articles, and think about what positives it achieved (identify at least 1 positive).
Two problems with the Articles of Confederation was the fact that only the states could increase taxes, and right to rebel if the government was not protecting property. Although this got sorted out after a lot of arguing, the Articles of Confederation were already being questioned. A positive this document achieved was that it officially unified the Americas together because it was the first steps towards the Constitution and a central government.
The Constitution is a document of many debates and compromises. Identify which of the compromises you believe to be the most significant overall and explain why.
I believe the Great Compromise was the most significant to the Constitution because it gave both big and small states what they wanted. It says that there will be two houses; one based on population which the big states liked, and one that equal representation to all states, which the small states liked.
What was the role of slavery in the Constitution, and why was it an issue at this time? Think about how it appeared in the Constitution, and be sure to include at least 2 of the 3 slave “clauses.”
Slavery was an issue because half the delegates wanted it to be banished and half wanted it to stay. 50% of delegates owned slaves and the south really relied on them, the south would not vote on constitution if banished. So the 3/5 slave clause was made which meant 3/5 of slaves count as a vote in the states. slave trade clause- was made saying that in the next 20 years slavery can not be abolished.
Why were the politics of the 1790s so divisive? Include specific examples of these divisions.
After Washington’s presidency, politics became very divisive mainly between the Federalists and the Republicans. The Federalists Party had different ideas for economics focused on industry and commerce. Hamilton’s plan included the federal government assuming state debt, creation of a national bank, subsidies and tariffs, and raising taxes. They also wanted to maintain a relationship with Britain and having a stronger national government and military. Urban areas, merchants, and the north preferred this party. The Anti-Federalists became the Republican Party having different beliefs. Their economic plan included westward expansion and farming. They also believed in a limited national government and military. Farmers especially in the south preferred this party because it viewed everyone the same and limited social inequality.
In what ways was liberty restricted during the Adams presidency?
During Adam’s presidency, there were multiple was liberty had been restricted. The Alien and Sedition Acts made it more difficult for foreigners to become citizens and gave the president the power to imprison or deport non-citizen during war time. This meant that immigrants really had no liberty after coming to American. These acts also imprisoned and fined anyone who said or wrote anything about the government
Who actually won the War of 1812, and what was the larger significance of the war?
The large significance of the war of 1812 was that the british totally destroyed the americans in it but neither side really won or lost anything. This was the time when britian really thought of America as it’s own country.
What was new (and different) about politics during Jackson’s run for president and his time in office?
He was an odd president. He was very stubborn and everyone called him old hickory. He always threw crazy parties. Another odd thing about his parties were that everyone was invited to them. You didn’t have to have land to vote anymore
What was Jackson’s approach to the Native American population? Why did he take this approach, and how were the native peoples impacted?
the federal policy for Native Americans was to assimilate. Jackson’s approach was removal of this population. With the push to open up the lower states for white people, Jackson worked on passing the Indian Removal Act, which gave money to the states to relocate the tribes west to the Louisiana Purchase area. This resulted in the Trail of Tears where 16,000 people were forced to relocate and almost a quarter of them died.
What were the material and legal conditions in which slaves lived, and how did these conditions change over time (early colonial period to 18th century to 19th century)?
18th century slave owners were more lax and most of them had overseers but were not always around. Some owners gave the slave a list of things to get done at their own pace. In most places punishment wasn’t that harsh. In the 19th century slave culture became more serious. In the south, slavery became crucial and in the north it became less popular. Cotton became more and more popular and slaves were needed frequently. The Bible was used to legitimize slavery and punishments became harsher.
What were the material and legal conditions in which slaves lived, and how did these conditions differ by region?
north was not relying on slavery, slaves had more freedom. The east and south were desperately relying on slavery for cotton and working on plantations. In the north the slaves had own little shacks with families. South- slaves had one pair of clothes and barely anything to sleep on, not allowed to marry or assemble, education
In class we discussed 3 major forms of resistance to slavery. Identify 1 of these forms, provide examples of it, and explain how effective it was.
Routine resistance was when a slave would break something or act sick enough to not work on the field and try to get out of their routines of the day. It was effective but not for long.
Why did many white southerners (and even white northerners) support slavery even if they did not actually own any slaves?
Slavery created equality among whites. Even if you are a poor white you are greater than the slaves and have the same rights as the wealthy whites. This allowed for whites to avoid the class system.
What impact did changes in transportation have prior to the Civil War?
Prior to the Civil War roads were dangerous and slow, muddy or frozen and took a long time to get through. The Turnpike era started the national road that connected Maryland to Illinois. Then they began the creation of the canals. Canals were waterways connected by bodies of water which made for quicker travels. After canals, railroads were the main source of transportation which was huge for farmers and trade.
How did industrialization affect families in the 1840s-1860s?
Industrialization affected families in the 1840s-1860s immensely. With the move to working in factories rather than farming, families did not need the large numbers to help with the farms, and in turn had smaller families because there was less space, and not enough money to feed a lot of mouths. First they needed workers so farmers sent their daughters to go to the factories to work. Second they had women take outwork with them to their homes to complete. When factories became bigger they recruited who native families to work. This was a good way to make supplemental money for the family.
What role did immigration play during the period of industry and reform?
The immigrant workforce grew quickly which was great for factories, cheap labor and lots of workers. There was less social pressure to keep up with the factories. Because of this, in the 1840-1860s, there was an immigration and urban growth which had immigrants from Ireland, Germany, and China to come in very large numbers. this also caused a rise in nativism.
What were the main features of the new economy that was taking shape in the early nineteenth century (what was happening on farms, with technology, in factories, etc)?
Factories and Industrial Revolution was the biggest issue, families did not need a workforce for the farm anymore, lead to smaller families, emergence of a middle class life. Then the workforce switched to immigrants and This also created separate spheres of importance in the families. Men led the public life including politics and work while women led a private life including work in the home.
Why were Americans interested in improving American society in the first half of the nineteenth century?
Religious changes caused the Second Great Awakening. Americans Believed that people could be saved from sin, and it was up to religious groups to do it. moralistic dogmatism- means that these groups of people thought that what they knew was right, and they were good because they were disciplined
How did changes in society (for instance, the market revolution and the Second Great Awakening) lead to this period of reform?
Changes in society, such as the market revolution and focus on spreading the bible, created a middle class and new religions. The second great awakening focused on new reforms to create better lives for Americans such as temperance and education. Temperance was a reform for men to quit drinking and losing all their money. Education reform brought women into play, they could educate children outside of the home in public schools.
What role did women play in the different reform movements, and how did that impact the development of the women’s rights movement?
Women had a lot to do with the temperance reform because they were the ones being affected along with their children by men drinking too much; losing their money and homes. Women also had a great deal to do with education reform; single women that is. Women were coming out of their private sphere into the public sphere. This showed the world that women can also work. Women began to speak out loud to mixed gender audiences about abolition.
Who were the abolitionists, what did they want, and what were their racial attitudes?
White abolitionists believed in colonization- goal was to remove slaves and freed blacks and returns to Africa, did not believe in slavery, but also did not believe in racial equality.
Black abolitionists were freed slaves and were influenced directly by the Colonization Movement by the white abolitionists. wanted freedom for all slaves, and social and economic equality.
Militant abolitionists were white abolitionists but grew tired of the moderate movement, believed that there should be an immediate abolition of slavery and to have full rights as American citizens.
Analyze the colonization movement. What was it, who was involved, what impact/success did it have, and why were many blacks opposed to it?
The colonization movement was the movement to free all the slaves and send them to Africa. The group was mostly made up of Quakers, who thought slavery was wrong but that they were still superior than blacks. Only 1,400 slaves were sent back to Africa because there were too many to ship back. The impact wasn’t huge in the sense that they didn’t send that many slaves to Africa, but that the blacks were enraged that they were being sent to Africa when they were American.
How did the abolitionist movement and the women’s rights movement influence each other?
The temperance and education reforms brought women out of the shadows which started the women’s rights movement. The abolitionist movement began right after the reforms causing the women to think they had a right to speak about abolition.
Define “Manifest Destiny,” and discuss who supported and opposed this idea and why.
Manifest Destiny is the belief that Americans needed to extend liberty and democracy to people in the west; it was also the belief that whites were superior. Americans that moved west supported of being annexed and Manifest Destiny. The tribes and other people who already lived in the west did not support this idea because they already liked the way they lived and the government did not support Manifest Destiny because they were too concerned with how the states would break up into slave/anti-slave states.
What aspects of the economic development of the U.S. in the first half of the 19th century contributed to the sectional crisis of the 1850s?
The Missouri compromise was a huge contributer to the crises of the 1850. The debate of how the states would be split into slave/anti-slave states caused the north and south to divide even more than before. The whole line idea really frustrated the south and later made it hard for some states to be slave states which made things unfair and the south wanted it to be equal.
Why did the expansion of slavery become such a divisive political issue in the antebellum era?
The expansion of slavery was a divisive political issue because the north and south were split 50/50 between slave/anti-slave states. The north didn’t want to accept a new state unless it was going to be free and the south didn’t want to accept a state unless it was a slave state. The north and south were strongly divided at this point.
What was the Dred Scott case and court decision, and what significance did it have in the developing sectional split?
The Dred Scott case was a case of a slave suing his owner for his freedom because he and his owner moved to a free state; he believed he should now be free. His case was denied because it is illegal to take someone’s property without due process. This means that even the northern slaves are considered property even though the northern states are free.
Which of the events discussed in class related to the “Lead up to the Civil War” do you think had the greatest impact in increasing the sectional split? Adequately define and explain the event and then defend your choice.
the event that had the most impact was the election of 1860.At first it was the north and south dividing over slavery and which states were allowed to be free. At the point during the election the south also started to spilt between political parties. The two democratic parties believed in two different ways of governing. The Republican Party nominated Lincoln, who won the election, but with only 2/5 the popular vote, because of his more subtle running. The south was outraged by the win and started to secede.
Identify 2 of the Civil War battles discussed in class or in the textbook that you believe were the most important or had the greatest impact on the war. Discuss what happened in each battle, and defend your choices.
The Battle of Bull Run- first battle between the confederates and the union in Virginia. The south comes at the north very strong and the north has to run, leaving the south to win the first battle. The south gained confidence through this battle. showed the south was serious. The second most important battle is The Battle of Gettysburg, it was the last straw for the south. the south lost 1/3 of their army making them no longer a threat to the union army.
At the outset of the Civil War, what were the advantages and disadvantages of the North and South, and how did they affect the final outcome? Include at least 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages for each side.
The North had a larger population, more factories to produce supplies, transportation, firearms, and money. The economy suffered because while the people in the North needed to fight, they also needed to work in the factories. Support in the north was also shaky at times. The South had a more unified army because they had a reason to fight in the war. Although they thought that they had foreign support, they truly did not. The South also had an immensely smaller army and had few weapons. The North won the Civil War because of the larger army, industry, and transportation.
Describe how the values and platform of the Free Soil Party differed from that of the abolitionists.
o The free soil pary didn’t just hit slavery but it also hit racism. Both of these parties agreed on freeing the slaves not just for racial equality but also to have white man from competing with black work
How did a war to preserve the union become a war to end slavery?
began when the Second Confiscation Act was passed. It states that confederate states that rebelled against the government or committed treason were to have all their slaves freed. What made the complete shift from preserving the union to end slavery was Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation which took away slavery from the confederate states.
Identify the 3 plans for Reconstruction. How did they differ and why?
Lincolns Plan- 10% planp- of population took loyalty oath and people who took oath could make up the state’s government. once the state was established there were no limits on who could run for office.Gave educated black landowners fighting for the North, the right to vote Johnson’s Plan- Racist, similar to lincoln’s plan but slave owners had to get a presidential pardon to be in office.
Radical Congressional Plan-establish military rule in south and state constitution had to ratify the 14th amendment, In congress republicans have a lot of power and disagree with Johnson
After the Civil War, how did white southerners attempt to limit the freedom of former slaves? In what ways did these efforts succeed, and in what ways did they fail?
Black codes, Said they could only work in agriculture, Sharecroping lead to cycles of poverty and dept for the blacks
What different visions of freedom did the former slaves and slaveholders pursue after the Civil War (ie during and immediately after Reconstruction)?
Former slaves saw freedom as more than just no longer being enslaved, they wanted equality. Slaveholders wanted life back to the way it was and wanted a life separate from the north.
What were the main reasons for the defeat of Reconstruction?
•Reconstruction was expensive, people were ready to deal with other problems and believe that the 13, 14, and 15th amendments had helped the blacks enough, rise of social darwinism.This meant the north was tired of putting their time and money into the southern states for the freed blacks so they pulled out and let the blacks fend for themselves. When the compromise of 1877 came out this pulled all help in the southern states and assured the end of the reconstruction.
Frederick Douglass insisted that “slavery is not abolished until the black man has the ballot.” What did Douglass mean by this?
Fredrick douglas meant by this quote that slavery may have been said that it is over but it is not truelly over until the black man is given the same rights as the white because they are still being considered less.