US History Unit 5 Study Guide Vocab

Secession
the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
Popular sovereignty
citizens vote on issues that affect them (not gov’t)
13th Amendment
amendment proposed by Lincoln that abolished slavery
14th Amendment
made “all persons born and naturalized in the US” citizens
15th Amendment
states that had no one can be restricted from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
Bleeding Kansas
territory that became a violent battlefield in the civil war
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Border Ruffians
people from Missouri who crossed into Kansas with revolvers and voted illegally
Nativism
the favoring of Native-born Americans over immigrants
Free-Soiler
one who opposed the extension of slavery into the territories
Confederacy
confederate states of america that were formed by secessionist state delegates
Reconstruction
period during which the US began to rebuild during the Civil War
Freedman’s Bureau
assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South by distributing clothing and food
Scalawag
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Carpetbagger
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War trying to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
Sharecropper
Farmer who works land owned by another and is required to give the landowner a set percentage of the harvest; what many former slaves became after the Civil War
Home Rule
Local self-government
Contraband
property that can be held by an opposing nation during a time of war
Henry Clay
A northern American politician who developed The Great Compromise
John Brown
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading the unsuccessful Harper’s Ferry Raid
Charles Sumner
Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him
Horace Greeley
Owner of the New York Tribune who founded the Republican Party
Abraham Lincoln
President of the US who was in power during the secession of Southern states. Passed the 13th Amendment and began the Reconstruction after the Civil War
Dred Scott
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the MO Compromise; court ruling declared the MO Compromise to be unconstitutional
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
Andrew Johnson
President who seceded Lincoln after his assassination. Continued Lincoln’s Reconstruction but was eventually tried to impeachment due to his lack of progress
Ulysses S. Grant
American general and the eighteenth President of the United States; was the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Stephen Douglas
Author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South; leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress.