US History Reconstruction – Present

Manifest Destiny
Idea of the 19th century that the United States should expand across the continent
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad that linked the east and west coast of the United States
Importance of Railroads
It revolutionized transportation with a easy 6 day trip instead of a dangerous 6 month trip

It unified the continent

Settlers
People who traveled to the Mid-West to become a farmer through the Homestead Act
Sod House
Houses in the Mid-West made out of dirt, mud, and sod
Little Big Horn
1876 battle in which the Sioux defeated General Custer and the U.S. Army troops
Wounded Knee
1890 confrontation between the U.S. cavalry and the Sioux that marked the end of the Indian resistance. The U.S. Army arrested Sitting Bull for starting the “Ghost Dance” phinamonan. All the Indians that tried to flee were killed and the “Ghost Dance stopped
Sitting Bull
One of the Sioux leaders, along with Crazy Horse, who planned to drive out the Americans at the Battle of Little Big Horn.
Crazy Horse
The leader of the Sioux, along with Sitting Bull, who planned the Little Big Horn attack. He was arrested and stabbed in prison
Dawes Act
Each Indian family gets 160 acres of farmstead instead of living on a reservation
Assimilation
The idea that Native Americans could be “absorbed” into U.S. culture
Reservation
Specific areas set aside by the government for the Indians to use
Sand Creek Massacre
1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of Cheyenne and Arapahu Indians
Chief Joseph
The Nez Perces leader who attempted to lead a group of Nez Perces refugees to Canada. He was stopped and forced to beg for mercy in Washington
Land Grants
Land granted by the government instead of money for railroad workers in return for their service
Open-Range System
vast area of grassland on which livestock roamed and grazed
Homestead Act
1862 law that gave 160 acres of land to citizens willing to create a road from their house to the main road, dig a well, and live on it for 5 years
Exodusters
African Americans who migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War
Vigilante
Self-appointed law enforcer
Reconstruction
Bring the South back into the Union after the Civil War
Freedman Bureau
A federal agency designed to aid freed slaves and relieve the South’s immediate needs
Andrew Johnson
The Vice President to Abraham Lincoln, President after he was assassinated
13th Amendment
1865 constitutional amendment that abolished slavery
14th Amendment
1868 constitutional amendment which defined citizenship and guaranteed citizens equal protection under law
15th Amendment
1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
Radical Republican
Members of Congress that favored the punishment of the South and the freedom of slaves
impeachment
The act of bringing charges against an official in order to determine whether he/she should be removed from office
Ku Klux Klan
Organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups
de jure segregation
segregation imposed by law
Carpet Bagger
Northern adventurers who came to the South during the Reconstruction
Scalawag
Southern white farmers who wanted improved economic position during the Reconstruction
Black Codes
Rules for African Americans living in the South
Compromise of 1877
Federal troops would be removed from Lousiana, Florida, and South Carolina if they vote for Rutherford B Hayes as President
Success of the Reconstruction
Slavery was abolished

South rejoined the Union

Failures of the Reconstruction
Segregation
Civil War
War fought from 1861 – 1865 between the North and the South over ending slavery
Freedmen
A term used for former African American slaves
10-percent Plan
Abraham Lincoln’s plan for the South to rejoin:

Pardons all Confederate government

As soon as 10% of the Southern states rejoin the Union, they can send senators and representatives to Washington

Thaddeus Stevens
Radical Republican who wanted to make African Americans equal to whites
New Orleans Massacre
July 30th, 1866 – 40 members (African American) of Political Convention were murdered by ex-Confederate Soldiers
Ulysses S. Grant
The President after Johnson
Sharecropping
System in which a farmer tended a portion of a planter’s land in return for a share of the crop
Poll Tax
A tax for African Americans on voting
Litercary Test
A test that had to be passed in order for on to vote
Rutherford B Hayes
Republican President after Grant
Entrepreneur
Person who invests money in a product or business with the goal of making a profit
Protective Tariff
Tax on imported goods making the price high enough to protect domestic goods from foreign competition
Laissez Faire
The absence of government control over private business
Patent
Official right given by the government to an inventor for the exclusive right to develop, use, and sell an invention for a set period of time
Thomas Edison
The inventor of the light bulb
Bessemer Process
Method developed in the mid-1800s for the making of steel more efficiently
Suspension Bridge
Bridges that have a railroad/railway suspended by cables
Time Zone
Any of the 24 longitudinal areas of the world within which the same time is used
Mass Production
Production of goods in large numbers through the use of machinery and assembly lines
Corporation
A group ownership over a business
Monopoly
Complete control over a product
Cartel
Associations of producers of a good or service that prices and controls stock in order to monopolize a market
John D Rockefeller
Oil tycoon, used horizontal integration, world first billionare, Philantrophist
horizonal intergration
systems of consolidating many firms in the same business

The company lowers the price of their good to put other companies out of business, then the company raises up their prices

trust
A group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board in order to form a monopoly
Andrew Carnagie
Steel Tycoon, Industrialist, Philantrophist
Vertical Intergration
Systems of consolidating firms involved in all steps of a product’s manufacture

The company buys every step in manufacturing their product so they make more money

Social Darwinism
The belief held by some in the late 19th century that certain nation’s and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them
I.C.C.
Interstate Commerce Commission. First federal agency monitoring business operation, created in 1887 to over see interstate railroad producers
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 law banning any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce
Homestead Strike
1892 strike against Carnagie’s steelworks in Homestead, PA
Five causes of Industrial Growth
Natural Resources, Immigration, Capitalism, Government Policy, Innovation
Important Inventions
Telegraph – 1844
Sewing Machine – 1846
Safety Elevators – 1852
Light Bulbs – 1880
Steam Boiler Furnace – 1884
Labor Unions
Workers who band together to try and improve working conditions
Strike
Organized work stoppage by workers
Captains of Industry
Leaders in the Business Industry who helped American become a super power
Robber Barons
Someone who would do anything, ethical or unethical, to make money for themselves
Imperialism
Political, Military, and Economic domination of strong nations over weaker territories
Extractive Economies
Economy in a colony where the colonizing country removed raw materials and shipped them back home to benefit its own economy
Alfred T Mahan
A Naval officer and historian, wrote that the greatest nations have the most powerful Navies
Frederick J Turner
A historian who stressed the importance of frontiers in American history
Matthew C Perry
The commander who sailed into modern day Tokyo bay, Japan. The ports were closed to other countries but Perry won the Emperor with expensive gifts
Queen Liliuokalani
The last queen of Hawaii before the U.S. annexed it
Jose Marti
The Cuban patriot who launched a war of independence from Spain
William Randolph Hearst
A newspaper publisher who heightened the public dislike of the Spanish government in Cuba
Yellow Press
Newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership. They were called the Yellow Press because they featured a cartoon called the yellow kid
jingoism
Aggressive Nationalism
Emilio Aguinaldo
The leader of Filipino nationalist who were trying to rid their country of Spanish government
Rough Riders
Groups of men, consisting of rugged westerners and upper class easterners who fought during the Spanish American war
Treaty of Paris
An agreement signed by the United States and Spain in 1898, which officially ended the Spanish American War
U.S.S. Maine
An American warship sent to Cuba to monitor Cuban affairs, the ship ended up exploding
Spanish American War
A war fought between Spain and the United States over Cuba and the Philippines from April – August of 1898
Insurrection
Rebellion
Guerilla Warfare
Form of non-traditional warfare generally involving hit-and-run attacks by small bands of fighters
William Howard Taft
Governor of the Philippines in 1901 future President of the United States
Sphere of Influence
A region dominated and controlled by an outside power
Boxer Rebellion
Violence started by members of a secret society in China, which prompted the governments of Europe and Asia to squash the rebellions
John Hay
U.S. Secretary of state who issued notes to serve as a guiding principle of American foreign policy in Asia
Russo-Japanese War
A war between Russia and Japan in 1904 over the presence of Russian troops in Manchuria
Great White Fleet
Battleships sent by Teddy Roosevelt in 1907 on a “good will cruise” around the world
Reasons for conquering Philippines
The U.S. captured Aguinaldo

The U.S. had a greater army than the Philippines

Arguments for expansion vs. arguments against
Missionary Diplomacy, Social Darwinism, Imperialism, Manifest Destiny
Specific U.S. acquisitions of territories
Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Cuba
Reasons for Imperialism
Extractive Economies, Military, Social Darwinism
Causes of WWI
Imperialism, Nationalism, Militarism, Alliance System
Trench Warfare
Static, defensive strategy, with little movement either way by opposing forces
Reasons for American Neutrality in 1914
Mixed ethnicities, Various public opinion, U.S. job to be mediator
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany was being reckless with their submarines by sinking any ship from any country for no reason
Isolationists
Believed that the war was none of America’s business and that the nation should isolate itself from the hostilities
Interventionists
Felt that the war did affect American interests and that the U.S. should intervene in the conflict on the side of the Allies
Internationalists
Believed that the U.S. should play an active role in world affairs and work toward achieving peace without entering the war
Reasons for American entry in 1917
Germans attacking the Lusitania, Zimmermann Note, Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, Destruction of U.S. factories
Howard Zinn’s argument
We were supplying the Allies with military supplies, Germany was protecting their interests
AEF
American Expeditionary Forces, About 4 million American men who fought in WWI with the Allies
War Industry Board
Created in 1917 to urge companies to be more efficient and mass-produce
Committee on Public Info
Created in 1917 to popularize the war with propaganda
Fourteen Points
List of terms for resolving WWI created by President Wilson, including the idea for the League of Nations
League of Nations
World organization established after WWI to promote peaceful cooperations between countries

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