US History Midterm Exam: Units 1-5

Alexander Hamilton
He supported the creation of a national bank
First political parties
Formed around the issue of the power of the federal and state governments
Federalists
Party that favored more power for Federal government
Agrarian nation
Thomas Jefferson want our economy to be dominated by farmers
Strict interpretation
People who believe the government should exercise only the powers specifically listed in the constitution
Whiskey Rebellion
Helped to establish the power of the federal government to enforce federal laws in the states
Judicial review
Allowed the Supreme Court to decide if laws are Constitutional or not
Marbury v. Madison
The case that gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review
Louisiana Purchase
Doubled the size of the U.S. allowing for westward expansion and getting rid of the French in North America
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Said states had the power to declare laws unconstitutional
Impressments
A cause of the War of 1812; British took American sailors
Tecumseh
Led Midwestern Indians against American government, died in War of 1812
Andrew Jackson
The Battle of New Orleans made him a hero
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Democratic-Republicans viewed these as a violation of freedom of speech
War Hawks
Men like Henry Clay & John C. Calhoun who wanted to invade Canada
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812
“Era of Good Feelings”
Describes the time after the War of 1812 when Monroe was president and the Democratic-Republicans were in charge
American System
Henry Clay’s plan to create an independent and strong economy that connected all parts of the country through internal improvements
The North
This geographic region became the center of the industrial movement
Manifest Destiny
Idea that God gave the West to America and the country should stretch from sea to sea
Monroe Doctrine
Policy that European countries should stay out of the Western Hemisphere
Trail of Tears
Caused by the Indian Removal Act; the journey of the Cherokees to Indian Territory
Andrew Jackson
Who was seen by Americans as the victim of the Corrupt Bargain? (won the popular vote; but wasn’t president)
Spoils System
Practice of giving government jobs in exchange for political support
Whig Party
Was formed by those who wanted a weaker president; didn’t like Pres. Jackson
Tariff of Abominations
The issue that South Carolina’s 1830’s nullification crisis originally occurred over
Missouri
The territory that wanted to become a state which upset the balance of slave & free states in the Senate
Second Great Awakening
Religious movement that spread across the country
Mormons
A new church in the 18030s, called Latter Day Saints, that were persecuted by many
Utopian societies
Groups that shared their belongings and lived outside of mainstream society
Seneca Falls Convention
First women’s rights meeting
Dorthea Dix
Advocate for humane treatment of the mentally ill & prison reform
Nat Turner
Started a failed slave rebellion; resulted in harsher slave laws
William Lloyd Garrison
Owned the Liberator; was an avid abolitionist
Horace Mann
Advocate for public education
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Lincoln argued that slavery should not be extended to the west, while Douglas argued for popular sovereignty
Compromise of 1850
California became a free state, the slave trade ended in D.C. and fugitive slave laws were more harsh
Fugitive Slave Act
Part of the Compromise of 1850 that allowed policemen & citizens to capture & send African Americans south
Popular Sovereignty
Idea that territories would decide to be slave or free by vote
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Book that influenced many northerners against slavery
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
Court case that determined that slaves were not citizens
John Brown
abolitionist who took part in Bleeding Kansas & attacked the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
Harriet Tubman
Person who help slaves escape North through the Underground Railroad
Immediate causes of the Civil War
The election of Lincoln and S.C. secession
Kansas-Nebraska Act
After this law, pro & anti slavery forces rushed to Kansas
Election of Lincoln
Caused South Carolina to secede from the Union
Home Advantage
The main advantage that the Confederates had over the Union
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who led the south
Vicksburg
Union victory that gave the north access to the Mississippi River
Anaconda Plan
Union scheme to blockade the South
Battle of Gettysburg
Confederate retreat from this massive three day battle marked the last invasion into Union territory, and served as the final turning point of the war.
Gettysburg Address
Memorable speech by Lincoln to dedicate the field to the soldiers who died & help the country cope with their loss
Emancipation Proclamation
President Lincoln changed the purpose of the war from preserving the union to slavery
Writs of Habeas Corpus
During the war, President Lincoln allowed people to be held & imprisoned without being charged or tried
Total War
Attacking any enemy resources; idea that the crueler the war, the faster it would end
Appomattox Courthouse
Lee surrenders and the Civil War ends
Carpetbaggers
Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War
Ku Klux Klan
Used violent tactics in order to intimidate African-Americans from voting & participating in elections
Sharecroppers
Farmers lived in a cycle of poverty that rendered them in debt to the landowners
“Solid South”
Describes southern support of Democratic Party
Homestead Act
Sold western land at a low price to people willing to farm it
Morrill Land Grant
Sold land to raise money for agricultural & technical colleges
Radical Republicans
Wanted to punish the south after the Civil War with harsh reconstruction terms
Black Codes
Laws that limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War
13th amendment
Abolished slavery
14th amendment
States must give all citizens equal protection and due process of law
15th amendment
People can vote regardless of race
Buffalo
Native Americans hunted them for food, clothing, housing & tools
Little Big Horn
General Custer & his men were killed by the Sioux
Battle of Wounded Knee
Occurred because of white settlers discomfort with the Ghost Dance
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson about the ill-treatment of Native Americans by the government
Dawes-Severalty Act
Split Indian land into plots to encourage Native Americans to become farmers
Buffalo Soldiers
Black soldiers who joined the Army and fought in the Indian Wars
Boomtowns
Appeared suddenly and were successfully when gold or silver were discovered nearby
Barbed Wire
Cheap & easy way to confine cattle in one area
Promontory Summit
Where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads met
ICC
First regulatory agency; oversaw the railroad industry
Comstock Lode
Largest silver find
Half-Breeds and Stalwarts
Name of the groups the Republican party split into in the 1870-80s.
Populists
New party that supported farms, regulating railroads & bimetallism
Silverites
Wanted to use both gold & silver to back up U.S. Greenbacks
Cross of Gold speech
Given by William Jennings Bryan in support of bimetallism
Pendleton Act
Law that replaced the spoils system with the merit system for government jobs
horizontally integrated
A business buy up other companies that produce the same thing they do
vertically integrated
A business owns every level or step of the manufacturing process
Boss Tweed
Ran the NY political machine from Tammany Hall
Robber barons
Nickname for the rich industrialists like Rockefeller & Carnegie
Carnegie
Made his fortune in steel manufacture, was a great philanthropist
Rockefeller
Made his fortune by creating a monopoly in the oil industry
gospel of wealth
Idea supported by Carnegie, that the wealthy had an obligation to help the poor
Social Darwinism
Idea that the most fit business & people would succeed and the government should not help those people or business that failed
Gilded Age
Nickname for the time period in the late 1800s to describe the success & poverty of the time
Sherman Anti-trust act
Made monopolies illegal, but was often used against unions
Haymarket Square riot
Made many distrust unions, Knights of Labor disappear
AFL
Trade union founded by Samuel Gompers
Eugene V. Debs
Labor activist and unsuccessful Socialist Party presidential candidate
Ellis Island
The entry point for immigrants coming to the U.S. via the East coast
Tenements
Crowded, unsafe multifamily housing in the cities near factories
Jane Addams
Founded Hull House to assist immigrants
How the Other Half Lives
Written by Jacob Riis to draw attention to the poor conditions of factory workers

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