US History II AE Final Exam Study Guide

J.P. Morgan
Banking
John Rockefeller
Oil
Andrew Carnegie
Steel
Jane Addams
Helped Mentally Disabled
Hull House
Created Settlement Houses for Mentally Disabled
Ida B. Wells
Anti-Lynching
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Bust Trusts (Monopoly)
Social Darwinism
Survival of the Fittest: White vs. Black, Rich vs. Poor
Commodore Matthew Perry
1st American to go to Japan
Japan
Samurai Following
Far East
Strong Empires in Asia
Hawaii
US annexes Hawaii –> access to Japanese resources
William Seward
Takes Alaska, Buys it from Russia
Alaska
William Seward
Naval Power
US Ships
Alfred T. Mahan
Use Naval Power to enforce US Trade & control other countries
The Maine
Spanish destroyed US ship, need to protect Cuba
Yellow Press
Propaganda on Butcher Weyer
Butcher Weyler
Spanish General
George Dewey
Philippines
Rough Riders
Made TR Famous
America in Venezuela and Cuba
Imperialism
American in the Philippines
Imperialism
Teddy Roosevelt
Republican President
Splendid Little War
Spanish-American War
Roosevelt Corollary
US intervention in Latin America
Panama Canal
Started Revolution in Columbia –> Created Panama Canal
Square Deal
TR’s Domestic Program: Conserve Natural Resources, control corporations, & consumer protection
Newlands Reclamation Act
Conservation
McKinley Assassination
Civil War Veteran
Coal Strike of 1902
Labor workers opposition
Northern Securities Case
First trust busted (Rail Roads)
Conservations
Preserve Environment
Upton Sinclair
Wrote Jungle about diseases caused by food
The Jungle
Book written about unhealthy meat
Pure Food and Drug Act
Federal inspection of Meat, No production of dangerous medicines
Meat Inspection Act
Inspection of Meat
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Regulates Rail Roads
City Reform
Stop corruption
Bob LaFollette
Progressive Reform
Muckrackers
Revealing problems in society
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
Deaths of many women factory workers (safety regulations needed)
Lincoln Steffens
Corruption
Ida Tarbell
Trust, Exposed standard oil
Jacob Riis
Poverty
Booker T. Washington
Black rights, passive (accepts segregation)
W.E.B. DuBois
Black rights, Aggressive (pushed for Civil Rights, NAACP)
William Howard Taft
Trust-busting, civil service reform, ICC supporter
Bull Moose Party
Progressive Party, split Republican party (Taft vs. TR)
Eugene Debs
Inter-Nation Labor Union
Socialism
Public controls production
Woodrow Wilson
Leader of Progressive Movement
Federal Reserve Act
Created Central baking system in US & granted legal authority to issue legal tender
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassinated, Started WWI, Austrians vs. Serbians
Neutrality
US isolation from European affairs
Alliance System
Central Powers vs. Allies
Kaiser Wilhelm II
German Emperor
U-Boats (Unterseeboot)
Americans want to give goods to the British but Germans keep destroying US ships
Lusitania
Destroyed British ships with Americans on board
Arabic and Sussex Pledges
Germans promised change of naval warfare (public)
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
League of Nations, spread democracy, world peace
The Zimmerman Note
Mexicans work with Germans to invade US & Allies
Trench Warfare
Fighting in pits, machine gun turrets, foot soldiers
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
German subs attack Allied merchant ships w/o warning
War Industries Board
Coordinates War Industries, Gov’t controls war efforts & economy
Wartime Propaganda
Controlling opinions
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
US army
Battle of the Somme
Offensive by British & French forces vs. Germans
Selective Service Act
Military Draft (US)
Liberty Loans
Gave War Bonds
National War Labor Board
Prevent disputes between workers & managers
Committee on Public Information
Made propaganda
Sedition Act
Forbade offensive language directed towards US
Espionage Act
Prohibited interference with US military operations
The Treaty of Versailles
US didn’t want to join League of Nations
War-Guilt Clause
Legal basis for reparations (German)
Big Four
Allied Leaders, met at Yalta
League of Nations
Inter-Governmental organization founded because of Paris Peace Conference
Post War Troubles
Workers strike against US Gov’t
Red Scare
Elimination of American Communists
Palmer Raids
Attorney general, deported Communists/foreigners
Immigration Policy
Bans Asians from entering US
Racial Conflict
White radicals vs. Blacks
KKK
Hated immigrants
Return to Normalcy
Warren Harding’s campaign promise
Conservative vs. Liberal
Perspectives on Gov’t regulation
Warren Harding
Republican Conservative –> Gov’t controls
Calvin Coolidge
President after Harding, small-Gov’t conservative
National Origins Act
Asian Exclusion
Emergency Quota Act
Immigration Restriction
Teapot Dome Scandal
Naval Oil Reserve Scandal
Prohibition
Restriction of Alcohol in US
Amendment 18
Prohibition
Amendment 19
Women’s suffrage movement
Sacco and Vanzetti
Anarchists convicted for murder
Harlem Renaissance
Jazz Era
Duke Ellington
Jazz Musician
Marcus Garvey
Don’t fight segregation (Black), just leave
Urban Prosperity and Difficulty for Farmers
Imported goods, Non Self-Sufficient
Cars and Henry Ford
Innovation of production lines –> Economy Boom
Flappers
New group of young western women
Religious Fundamentalism
Evolution, No Darwinism taught in schools
Scopes Trial
Teach evolution in Southern Schools?
Radio
Broadcast news & presidential elections; Jazz Music
Margin Buying
Buying on credit with loans
Herbert Hoover
Economic Modernization
Rugged Individualism
Survive by one’s self
Laissez Faire
Super conservative, no Gov’t regulation
Stock Market Crash
Inflation
Causes of the Depression
WWI –> US banks lend money to Allies & Germany (reparations)
Bonus Army
WWI veterans want money for serving in war
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
High tariff –> depression worsens
Hoovervilles
Metal houses
Kellogg-Briand Pact
War is illegal
Presidential Election of 1932
FDR vs. Hoover –> FDR wins & proposes to fix Depression
Unemployment
No jobs
FDR’s First Hundred Days and The First New Deal
Conservation work in forests
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Give jobs to poor people
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Provide rural hydro-power
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Give $ to farmers to stop planting
National Recovery Act (NRA)
Mandatory codes for employers to follow
Repeal for Prohibition
legalize booze –> create jobs
Second New Deal
Social Security, Aid the public ($)
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Construction of public establishments
Social Security Act
Promised pensions for elderly
Packing the Supreme Court
Addition of more conservative Republicans for FDR support (New Deal)
Brain Trust
FDR’s advisers
Prances Perkins
1st Woman Cabinet member, Social Security
Dustbowl
Desert Storm –> agricultural damage
Father Charles Coughlin
Nationalized Industry
Huey Long
Share wealth, Socialist
Conditions for Europe after WWI
Great debt to US, significant damage
Fascism and the rise of Hitler and Mussolini
Dictatorships, Hitler promises to bring Germany out of hard war times
Rise of Japan and the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Strong economy, Communism
Munich Pact
Give Hitler land –> Hitler stops conquering Europe
Blitzkrieg
Speedy Warfare
Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force, Germany bombs UK
The Holocaust
Killing of Jews
Neutrality Acts
US stays isolated
Cash and Carry
Allied ships collect US goods (Trade)
Lend-Lease Act
US supplies UK during WWII
Pacific and European Theatres of War
Shows horrors of war to public
The Atlantic Charter
Allies decide not to conquer the countries at war
Pearl Harbor
Japanese “secretly” attack US, US joins WWII
American Industrialization
New weapons, Airplanes, Bombs
Link between the Great Depression and WWII
Creation of more US jobs, WWII –> End of Great Depression
African Americans and Women during WWII
Take jobs of White Men
The Draft
Military WWII Draft based on Birthday
Propaganda
Japanese & German (Made by US)
Rationing
All consumer goods to to US soldiers in war
Japanese Internment
Japanese citizens of US (spies?)
The Atomic Bomb
Fewer US soldiers deaths, Less use of resources, End of War
Manhattan Project
Built the Atomic Bomb (US)
Yalta Conference
Stalin enters Japan, Germany separated into 4 parts
Iron Curtain
Division of Europe (Allies vs. Russia)
Marshall Plan
US program to aid UK, rebuilt European economies
Truman Doctrine
US supports Greece & Turkey, prevent Communism
Containment
Aid countries bordering Russia, protect potential dominoes from USSR
Hydrogen Bomb
Nuclear Innovation (Russian)
Berlin Airlift
USSR blocks Allies from access of Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Mutual defense to opposing attack forces
Warsaw Pact
Iron Curtain, East & West totally separate
Brinkmanship
Game of chicken with missile construction
McCarthyism
Fear of Communism influences politics
Sputnik
Russian satellite
John Dulles
Secretary of State
Hollywood Ten
Regan turns it into Nixon, suspected Communists
CIA in Middle East and Latin America
Castro (Cuba), Shah (Iran)
U2 Incident
US spy plans shot down in USSR airspace
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Unsuccessful action by Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis
USSR missiles on Cuba, threatens US security
Alliance for Progress
Kennedy gives $ to Latin America, makes them better
Peace Corps
Maintain isolation & Us peace with other countries
Truman and the Presidential Election of 1948
Truman defeats Dewy, Huge upset, Democrats regain control over both Congressional houses (Republican & Democrat)
Rock and Roll and Elvis
Evolution of Music
Television
Broadcast Presidential elections
Suburbia and the Interstate Highway System
Distribution of goods & sciences
Conformity and Consumerism
Fashion, Increases Economic Production
The Baby Boom
Traditional Families
Kim Il Sung
Korean Communist Politician, Led North Korea
The UN Security Council
International Peace & Security
Douglas MacArthur
American General in Philippines
Red China
Chinese Soviet Republic (Communist)
Truman and Korea
Ordered US involvement in Korean War
Eisenhower and Korea
Ended US involvement in Korean War
Stalemate and Treaty of Korea
Ending Korean War
Plessy v. Ferguson
Racial segregation in private business
Brown v. Board of Education
Separate public schools, Black vs. Whites
Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott
Opposition to segregation
Emmett Till
Murdered for “stepping out of place” (talking to a white girl)
Theories of Non-Violence
No violence between white & black citizens
Little Rock Nine
First 9 Black students to attend While-only school
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
American Civil Rights
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Pro-Free Rides & Bus Boycotts
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Us Civil Rights Movement
Freedom Rides
Bus Boycotts through carpooling
Birmingham Campaign
Bring attention to unequal rights of blacks
Selma Campaign
Last stand for voting rights of Civil Rights Movement
March on Washington, MLK
Black Rights
Malcolm X
Black Muslim minister, human rights activist, public speaker
Black Power and Black Panthers
Want equality for Blacks
The Election of 1960
Richard Nixon vs. JFK, JFK wins
The New Frontier
JFK’s Foreign & Domestic Programs
The JFK assassination
Shot during Presidential motorcade by Lee Oswald –> Oswald shot by Jack Ruby
The Great Society
Domestic programs by JFK with reference to LBJ
Medicare and Medicaid
Health insurance coverage to elderly, Health program for Low-Income citizens
Dien Bien Phu
Battle of France vs. Viet Minh
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress repealed resolution –> Nixon given total control of US army in Vietnam
Character of fighting in Vietnam
Guerrilla Warfare
The Tet Offensive
Vietcong surprise attack on US embassy –> Credibility gap
Bombing of North Vietnam
Auick way for US to end Vietnam War
William Westmoreland
Vice-President under LBJ,Lied to public about war horrors
My Lai Massacre
US platoon murders innocent Vietcong citizens
Kent State Shootings
National Guard kills student protesters
The Antiwar Movement
Republican organization to end Vietnam War
Cambodian Incursion
Us troops invade Cambodia to kill Vietcong
The Legacy of the War
High US death tolls, Hurts US economy ($)
The Hippies and their Legacy
Opposition to Gov’t in EVERY WAY, Peace activists
Amendment 25
Presidential Elections
Warren Burger and the Burger Court
Chief Justice of US, Pro Gov’t Control (against Conservatives in Public freedom)
Richard Nixon
Restore Law & Order, Appealed to Middle-Class citizens
Detente
Cooling of Tensions between employers and workers
SALT I
Restrict use of Nuclear Weapons (US vs. USSR)
Watergate
Nixon secretly recording Democratic meetings –> Nixon’s impeachment
Gerald Ford
Republican, pardons Nixon, Give citizens $ so they can work
Jimmy Carter
Pro-Civil Rights, Supports Tax Reforms & Welfare Systems, Democratic
Malaise Speech
American People –> Crisis of Confidence
Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian Leader of Revolution to overthrow Shah of Iran
SALT II
Limits on strategic warfare (US vs. USSR)
Ronald Regan
Republican, Low Taxes/Big Business/Cut Gov’t Spending
The New Right and Conservatism
Conservative Political Movements
Supply-Side Economics
Cut Taxes –> Incentive to work –> Gov’t revenues increase
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Increase military spending –> defense system
Iran-Contra Scandal
Reagan’s administration sent $ from exchanges to Contras in Nicaragua
George H.W. Bush
Reagan Revolution, Small Gov’t
Operation Desert Storm
Iran & Iraq in long war over oil, US intervenes when American oil fields in Kuwait are threatened
Bill Clinton
Supported Liberal & Conservative Programs
Ross Perot
Rich businessman, understands economy, targeted federal budget deficit
The Election of 2000
George W. Bush vs. Al Gore, Ballot Mistakes –> Recount, George W. Bush wins

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