US History Exam

Which of the following describes Loyalists?
a. They decided to fight against the British
b. They supported British taxation
c. They thought Patriots were too radical
d. They wanted to return to Britain
C (Loyalists did not necessarily agree with everything that the British were doing, but they did disagree with how the Patriots were reacting… destroying things and harming people)
The goal of William Lloyd Garrison’s “The Liberator” was to…
a. Convince the public that slavery was necessary for the South
b. Build public support for the abolition of slavery
c. Pressure the government to decrease taxes on southern farmers
d. Win for women the same rights that med held
B (it was an abolitionist newspaper)
One British principle of government valued by the American colonists was the…
a. Custom of having a ruling king or queen
b. Right to pay no tax unless it was levied by their own representatives
c. Freedom to wage violent protests if they thought it was necessary
d. Potential to have an aristocratic house in the legislature
B (established by the Magna Carta… used as the basis for the colonists cry of “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”)
The 1850 Fugitive Slave Act increased tensions between the North and South because…
a. Northerners were no longer able to ignore slavery and its effects
b. Southerners were angry that Northerners were capturing salves to work in factories
c. The act encouraged enslaved persons to move North to escape bondage in the South
d. The act was a significant victory for Northern abolitionists
A (it made slavery something that could affect them too)
The Declaration of Independence was influenced by the ideas of…
a. Machiavelli
b. Charles Darwin
c. John Locke
d. Montesquieu
C (Natural Rights Theory= all men have rights to life, liberty and property that no one, even government can take away)
Which of the following was a turning point in the Civil War in the East?
a. The Battle of Bunker Hill
b. The Battle of Vicksburg
c. The Battle of Shiloh
d. The Battle of Gettysburg
D (stopped the Confederate advance into the North… South never got further than southern Pennsylvania)
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Which of the following describes differences between the North and South before the Civil War?
a. The North had more factories
b. The South had more railroads
c. The South was more populated
d. The North was more agricultural
A (Because the North was more industrial they had no need for slave labor, whereas the South depended on it for their plantations)
The Unites States Constitution provides for…
a. Checks and balances, separation of powers, and a unicameral legislature
b. Federalism, abolition of slavery, and reserved powers
c. Checks and balances, federalism, and separation of powers
d. Delegated powers, federalism, and voting rights for all men over 21
C (3 of the principles of the Constitution)
Which of the following arguments would have been used by a Federalist?
a. A strong central government will be able to handle the problems that face the new nation
b. Without a Bill of Rights, the Constitution will not provide basic liberties
c. The Constitution will strengthen the democratic state governments and decrease the powers of the central government
d. The Constitution will provide a more elitist government by concentrating power in relatively few hands at a great distance from voters
A (KEY: strong central government = FEDERAL government!)
What was the purpose of the Stamp Act Congress?
a. To control protests against taxes imposed by Parliament
b. To encourage buying goods imported from Britain
c. To get rid of the British troops that were in the colonies
d. To give women another job in the colonies
A (organized effort to schedule peaceful protests, boycotts, and letter writing campaign s to Parliament)
Loyalist
Someone who wanted the colonies to remain loyal to Great Britain and believed that the Patriots were too radical and too extreme.
Patriot
Someone who spoke out against the British and supported the colonies gaining their independence from Great Britain.
Federalist
Those who supported the Constitution and its ratification (approval). They believed that a strong central government was needed in order to help solve the problems of the nation (and that the Articles of Confederation was too weak).
Abolitionist
A person who opposed slavery and wanted to see it ended (abolished).
Secessionist
A person who wanted to leave the United States and form their own country.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws enacted in the South after Reconstruction.
Declaration of Independence
Approved in 1776; this document was written by Thomas Jefferson and announced the independence of the United States from Britain. It says that the colonies have the right to become independent because of the idea of consent of the governed: the idea that the government’s power comes from the agreement of the people.
Articles of Confederation
“America’s first Constitution;” it survived for less than 10 years. It was replaced by the Constitution. The reason it did not last was because it limited the power of the national government to get many things done (raise an army, pay off debts, etc.)
Constitution
written in 1787; written plan for government that is still around today. It includes principles like separation of powers, checks and balances, popular sovereignty, and federalism.
Fugitive Slave Act
Passed in 1850; this said that Northerners had to assist with capturing and returning fugitive (runaway) slaves to the South. It angered many Northerners who did not feel they should have to do this. Many Northerners also felt that it was an example of the federal (national) government having too much power within their state. Later on, this idea of the national government having too much power over the states would be used by some secessionists (people who wanted to leave the United States and form their own country).
The American Revolution
-what it led to
-one factor that contributed to the Revolution
-what it did do for women
-how did it inspire other countries
Led to independence for the United States from Britain
One factor contributing to the Revolution was the belief of the colonists that they should not have to pay taxes since they did not have representatives in Parliament
Allowed women to gain more respect because of their role in helping with the cause
Gave hope to other people in other countries who also began to fight for their own rights against aristocratic governments (governments led by nobles or the wealthy)
The Constitution
-it’s the plan for
-the principles of our government
It is the plan for our government
It contains principles of our government, like separation of powers, checks and balances, popular sovereignty, and federalism
Four Principles of the Constitution
1. Separation of Powers
2. Checks and Balances
3. Popular Sovereignty
4. Federalism
Separation of Powers
Dividing power between the different branches of government. The U.S. government is divided into the legislative (Congress), executive (President), and judicial (courts) branches of government. This is considered a principle of the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
The ability for one branch of government to limit the power (or “check” the power) of another branch. For example, if the President commits a crime, Congress can vote to impeach (bring charges against) the President. This is considered a principle of the Constitution.
Popular Sovereignty
Letting the people decide; the people vote to make a decision. This is considered a principle of the Constitution.
Federalism
Having both a state and national government who share power; this is the system that the United States has (we have a state government and then we also have a national government). This allows the states to pass laws that might concern only their state, while the national government can pass laws that affect all of the states. This is considered a principle of the Constitution.
The 1800s
It was a time of growing sectionalism between North and South
The North had an industrial economy; the South was largely agricultural
Northern workers included immigrants, while many Southerners relied on slaves to work their farms or plantations.
William Lloyd Garrison tried to gain support for the abolition (outlawing) of slavery by the publication of his newspaper known as The Liberator
The election of 1860
Lincoln wins as President
Many Southerners feared that he would try to end slavery in their state, so they decided to secede (leave) and form their own country. They called their country the Confederate States of America (or sometimes it is called the Confederacy)
This led to the Civil War (North versus South).
The North
Economy largely based on industry (factories)
Had many immigrant workers
Northern states were free states, meaning that slavery did not exist in those states
Although many Northerners opposed slavery, many still did not view African Americans as their equals
The South
Economy largely based on agriculture (farming)
Many plantation owners relied on slave labor
Wanted to be sure to keep slavery legal
Viewed slaves as their property, and not as people deserving of rights
Reconstruction
This was the time period after the Civil War
It was a period of rebuilding after the war and readmitting states to the United States (bringing states back into the United States that had rebelled)
Since the Constitution does not have a plan for this process, there was much controversy about it
It led to the “Civil War Amendments;” These are the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution that ended slavery (13th), granted citizenship rights to former slaves (14th), and gave African American males the right to vote (15th)
What was one effect of Reconstruction?
a. It gave African American men the right to vote
b. It eliminated all racial barriers in the South
c. It healed bitterness between the North and South
d. It resulted in the ratification of the 12th Amendment
A
The following were some accomplishments of Reconstruction EXCEPT:
a.The Freemen’s Bureau
b. The Jim Crow Laws
c. The 15th Amendment
d. The 14th Amendment
B
The Dawes Act
a. Allowed Native Americans to go back to their nomadic lifestyles
b. Helped Native Americans open businesses
c. Granted each Native American family a 160 acre homestead
d. Restocked the Great Plains with buffalo
C
Where did Union and Central Pacific railroads meet to create the Transcontinental Railroad?
a. New York, New York
b. Dayton, Ohio
c. Chicago, Illinois
d. Promontory Point, Utah
D
Which of the following characterized the spoils system?
a. Elected officials rewarded their supporters with jobs
b. Government workers received their jobs due to their expertise
c. Presidential candidates participated in elaborate rallies to get out the vote
d. Political participation and partisanship declined
A
Thomas Edison was best known for his invention of the
a. Light bulb
b. Automobile
c. Assembly line
d. Telephone
A
To maximize profits, early corporations
a. Bought few raw materials
b. Moved to countries where labor was less expensive
c. Paid their workers the lowest possible wage
d. Expanded into foreign markets
C
The following were causes if industrialization EXCEPT:
a. Raw resources
b. Immigration
c. Inventions
d. Business regulations
D
Muckrakers belonged to which profession?
a. Agriculture
b. Medicine
c. Business regulation
d. Journalism
D
When rural Americans moved to urban areas in the late 1800s, which one of the following conditions did they face?
a. Higher cost of living
b. Clean city streets
c. Difficult access to supplies
d. Fewer cultural opportunities
A
To combat high costs, the Populist Party demanded
a. The coinage of gold
b. Education on new farming techniques
c. Government ownership of the railroads
d. An end to political corruption
C
Why was the work of the muckrakers so effective in bringing about reform?
a. TR spoke about them in his radio addresses
b. Their sensational accounts were read by millions
c. The men only group had a lot of influence in America
d. None of the above
B
Where did the United States want an Open Door policy?
a. Panama
b. Cuba
c. Hawaii
d. China
D
Who was likely to prosper during the Gilded Age?
a. A sharecropper
b. A factor worker
c. A landowner
d. A factory owner
D
Where did most immigrants live in the cities?
a. In the suburbs
b. In tenements
c. In single-family homes
d. In high rises
B
Who entered the Unites States through Angel Island?
a. Irish immigrants
b. Polish immigrants
c. Chinese immigrants
d. Italian immigrants
C
Imperialism refers to the policy in which strong nations
a. Defend weak nations against aggressive acts by other nations
b. Offer military assistance in exchange for economic aid
c. Help weak nations develop democratic forms of government
d. Extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories
D
The 5 causes of WWI
1. Militarism
2. Alliances
3. Nationalism
4. Imperialism
5. Assassination of archduke
Dawes Act
1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots
Promontory, Utah
Location where the Union Pacific and Central Pacific met and completed the transcontinental railroad (railroad that stretched across the U.S.)
Laissez-faire
Government has a “hands off” approach to business and does not control much of private business; since many businesses and corporations in the late 1800s were trying to maximize profits, the working conditions of many places were poor and many people were paid low wages.
Spoils System
When a political party in power gives jobs to supporters, rather than giving them to those who might have better qualifications
Populist Party
Political party formed in 1891; they called for a graduated income tax, regulation of the railroad, a flexible monetary system, and their style of rallying people had a lasting effect on politics in the U.S.
Muckrakers
Nickname given to journalists whose writings tried to bring about reform in society (they received the name for “raking up the muck” in society as a way to raise awareness and as a way to bring about change); their accounts were read by millions of people and helped bring about change.
Imperialism
When one nation extends its political, military, or economic influence over another territory (this includes when one nation takes control of a smaller, weaker nation).
African Americans in the Late-1800s and Early 1900s?
After the Civil War, many African Americans moved to the West.
Many African Americans who remained in the South became sharecroppers
Jim Crow Laws were passed in the South after the Civil War; these allowed for segregation and limited the freedoms of African Americans
Plessy v. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case in 1896 that said that Jim Crow Laws and segregation was allowed if equal accommodations were provided (“separate but equal”)
Different leaders emerged for African Americans at the turn of the century; WEB DuBois founded the NAACP in 1909, while Booker T. Washington encouraged African Americans to be trained in trades to assist with their inclusion in white society
Immigrants?
In many cases, immigrants moved to the cities in order to look for work
Faced discrimination for differences with language, religion, and cultural practices
Arrived in the U.S. as a result of push factors (factors causing them to leave their home country) and pull factors (factors that brought them to the U.S.)
For European immigrants, they were processed in New York at Ellis Island; for Asian immigrants, they were processed in California at Angel Island
Industrialization?
The growth of industries and factories in the United States and throughout the world
A shift from agriculture to industry
Many factors contributed to the growth of industry, including raw materials, inventions, and immigration
Imperialists
Believed that the United States had a duty to take over other places and extend its values throughout the world
Stated the advantages of imperialism, including access to resources, more markets for U.S. goods, and the establishment of military bases throughout the world
Anti-Imperialists
Believed that imperialism was wrong
Formed an organization, the American Anti-Imperialist League, to speak out against imperialism
Believed that imperialism went against American values and principles, especially the notion of consent of the governed
The Spanish-American War
The U.S. participated in the war against Spain
As a result of the war, the U.S. received some territories from the Spanish
After the end of the war, the U.S. fought in the Philippines against those who wanted the Philippines to be an independent nation and not under the control of the U.S.
Causes of World War I:
Nationalism
Imperialism
Militarism
Alliances
Nationalism (strong belief that your nation was better than others)
Imperialism (the desire to expand and spread influence to other places)
Militarism (the build-up of the military in different nations)
Alliances (secret alliances, or agreements, between nations to come to the assistance of other nations if they were attacked)
U.S. Involvement in WWI?
1. At first, the U.S. was neutral during World War I, which began in 1914
2. The U.S. joined the Allies in 1917
3. Many factors influenced the U.S. getting involved, including Germany’s invasion of neutral Belgium, the sinking of the Lusitania and other passenger ships by German U-boats (submarines), and the Zimmermann Note
4. The Zimmermann Note was a note meant to be secret that was sent by Germany to Mexico; however, it was intercepted by the British. The note promised Mexico territory that it lost to the United States if Mexico would ally itself with Germany during WWI
Why do you think that the Anti-Imperialist League Platform authors refer to the “might makes right” idea as an ancient heresy?
a. To contrast the actions of the Spanish in Cuba with those of Great Britain in China
b. To emphasize that the democratic traditions of the US do not support imperialism
c. To point out that international law does not actually prevent the US from acquiring overseas territories
d. To question the part of international law that forbids imperialism
B
With his Square Deal, Theodore Roosevelt hoped to
a. Help pull the US out of the Great Depression
b. Increase the influence and power of the US among nations of the world
c. Keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor
d. Help business trusts remain competitive
C
At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the US
a. Retreated from its efforts to gain control of overseas territories
b. Had gained an empire and new stature in world affairs
c. Was forced to give up control of Cuba
d. Agreed to return control of the Philippines to Spain
B
In late summer of 1781, Washington’s troops trapped Cornwallis’ army at
a. Princeton
b. Yorktown
c. Boston Harbor
d. Philadelphia
B
“That old ship, the institution of slavery, is dead, and I am glad of it. Shall I employ its captain or its manager to bear me through the ocean again?” —African American minister’s post-slavery response
The speaker in the quotation above uses a metaphor to describe the situation African Americans faced after slavery. What issue is the minister addressing?
a. what method of transportation African Americans should use to escape slavery
b. Lincoln’s emancipation policy
c. whom freedmen should look to for leadership
d. whether freedmen should return to Africa or remain in the United States
C
Why was the capture of Vicksburg important to the North?
a. The ironworks at Vicksburg supplied most of the Confederacy’s weapons.
b. Vicksburg was the capital of the Confederacy.
c. Vicksburg was the key to the Anaconda Plan’s goal of gaining control of the Mississippi River and cutting the South in half.
d. Vicksburg was the headquarters of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
C
During Prohibition, the “wets” argued for
a. a lower drinking age.
b. the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment.
c. the legalization of bootlegging.
d. stronger enforcement of restrictions on drinking.
B
At issue in the Scopes Trial of 1925 was whether a public school teacher could
a. teach about Darwin’s theory of evolution.
b. tell students that the Bible contained errors.
c. teach a course on the Bible.
d. speak out against Darwin’s theory of evolution.
A
With its original sound created from a variety of musical styles, jazz became
a. a cause of new divisions between white and black Americans.
b. a symbol of American domination of the post-World War I world.
c. mainly associated with white musicians in the northern United States.
d. a demonstration of the depth and richness of African American culture.
D
Which group experienced an early depression in the 1920s?
a. farmers
b. bank owners
c. industrial workers
d. stock market investors
A
Which statement is true about World War I?
a. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand triggered the war.
b. Leaders prepared for a war by decreasing the size of their armies.
c. Social Darwinism soothed some of the competition between the countries before the war.
d. Countries did not form alliances because it would force them to enter war.
A
Which is an impact of World War I?
a. German and Russian monarchies became stronger.
b. The United States became the largest creditor nation.
c. Europeans used their money to buy American goods.
d. France no longer had a demand for British goods.
B
Poverty-stricken Americans living in the Tennessee River valley benefited from the Tennessee Valley Authority, which
a. paid farmers not to grow certain crops.
b. gave local residents subsidies for moving to the cities.
c. built a series of dams to control floods and generate electricity.
d. helped farmers plant new kinds of drought-resistant crops.
C
“Finally, in our progress toward a resumption of work we require two safeguards against a return of the evils of the old order; there must be a strict supervision of all banking and credits and investments; there must be an end to speculation with other people’s money, and there must be provision for an adequate but sound currency.” —Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address
Which New Deal agency related most closely to what President Roosevelt was speaking about in this quotation?
a. Securities and Exchange Commission
b. Civilian Conservation Corps
c. Tennessee Valley Authority
d. Civil Works Administration
A
“December 25th—Christmas. We are still in tents, when ought to be in huts—the poor sick, suffer much in tents this cold weather. But we now treat them differently from what they used to be at home. . . . We avoid piddling pills, powders, Babus’s Linctus’s cordials—and all such insignificant matters whose powers are only rendered important by causing the patient to vomit up his money instead of his disease. But very few of the sick men die.”
—Albigence Waldo on the care of the sick at Valley Forge

Albigence Waldo was a physician at Valley Forge. What does he say about the quality of care that sick soldiers received at Valley Forge?
a. The soldiers receive the same treatment as if they were at home.
b. Many don’t suffer in the cold despite being housed in tents.
c. Many soldiers are treated with remedies that do nothing to cure them.
d. Despite receiving different treatment from the normal, few of the sick die.

D
Who practiced Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America?
a. Theodore Roosevelt
b. William Taft
c. Woodrow Wilson
d. Franklin Roosevelt
B
Which of the following was a part of Wilson’s 14 Points?
a. War reparations
b. Disarmament
c. Division of Germany’s empire
d. The League of Nations
D