Last Updated 05 Jan 2018

US. History Exam #1

Category history 
Essay type Research
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Be able to explain the reasons for English colonization in America?
Settlers wanted to come to America to escape religious persecution, economic opportunity and to be able to be free from the rules of Great Britain and the war they had with the French.
•Know details about Jamestown and the settlers who lived there?
Jamestown was one of the first cities established it is where Captain John smith (AKA John Ralph) met Pocahontas. John married Pocahontas and Jamestown and the powhattan tribe was at peace.

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. The chief of powhattan tribe started a two year battle killing 500 colonist. Governor Berkley ordered the chief imprisoned and he was shot in the back of the head.
What raw materials did England desire from the new colonies?
The raw materials that England desired from the new colonies were gold, timber, tobacco, ECT...
What was the of the Virginia Company of London what purpose did it serve?
The Virginia Company of London started the headright system which allowed England citizens to pay their way to America and they would receive 50 acres of land. If one could not afford to go to America they became Indentured servants; once they worked off their pay they were able to get land or become free.
Whats was The House of Burgesses was modeled after?
The House of Burgesses was modeled after the English parliament.
details about the Powhatan people and English settlers interactions?
Powhattan tribe attacked James town killing their workforce so King James took over Jamestown and declared it a royal colony and sent troops to protect it. The chief of powhattan tribe started a two year battle killing 500 colonist. Governor Berkley ordered the chief imprisoned and he was shot in the back of the head.
What was Mercantilism?
Mercantilism is when the colonies provided the raw material and became a market for English goods
What were the Navigation Acts?
The navigation acts were acts that restricted the colonies from trading with other countries:
-All good must be shipped on British or colonial ships
-The ships must have the same crew
-They are only allowed to ship good to England
What was the Glorious Revolution?
The glorious revolution is where a revoultion began to remove king James. it established the supremacy of parliament over the crown, setting Britain on the path towards constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.
What is salutary neglect?
British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England
What was the triangular trade
Triangular trades was the colonies would ship good to England, England would go to Africa to get slaves, slaves would come to the colonies
What happened in the Stono Rebellion?
In the Stono rebellion the slaves heard rumors that if they make it to Florida they would be set free. So a militia led by Gimini road to Florida and cornered runaway slaved at the stono river and decapitated them and placed their heads on a stick so that any other slaves who tried to escape there would be warned of what would happen if they tried to leave
What are some details about the Negro Act 1740?
The slaves kept uprising by burning armory and killing white so the government passed the Negro act which prevented the slaves from learning to read, meeting in groups, raising food, mad making money.
What happened in the Witchcraft Trials in Salem?
Millions of people died because they were accused of being witches. The idea of magic was against the communities view that witches do not exist only religion with god does.
What was the Enlightenment era?
The Enlightenment era was when there was burst of creativity and art and writing became very popular. It focused on new inventions, the idea of individualism, and humanism (John Locke and Thomas Paine/ Social contract & Common Sense)
What was the Great Awakening?
The great awakening was the period in history that offered religious renewal. The people went back to the church.
what are details about the French and Indian War?
Known as seven years' war. It was the British fighting against the French for land east of the original colonies. Native Americans would help decide the way the war went. Britain treated them badly and took their food and land. France was friendly with them. The Native Americans sided with the French and the British suffered losses because of guerilla warfare. British won and decided to get back at natives by giving them diseased goods. The war was officially ended with the treaty of Paris where France gives up land in Canada and territory east of Mississippi. The war left England broke and to raise taxes on the colonist again.
What was the Proclamation of 1763?
Proclamation of 1763 was a document used to halt westward expansion and keep the colonist east of the Appalachian.
What was the Sugar Act?
Placed taxes on imported goods that was not taxed before
These placed duties (taxes) on certain imports that had not been taxed before?
Sugar Act
What were Vice-Admiralty Courts
Vice -admiral courts where navy courts
What was the Stamp Act?
Stamp act put taxes on documents and printed items
Who were the Sons of Liberty? (Started by Samuel adams)
Sons of liberty was a resistance groups that protested against the new acts
What was the Townshend Act?
Townshend Act put taxes on led, paints, and brought about No taxation without representation
This event took place in 1770 when a mob taunted British soldiers - 5 colonists were killed
The Boston massacre (first man killed was free black man)
What is Intolerable Act?
Act that closed the Boston harbor so they could not trade and brought in more troops to control the people (Closing of harbor, quarter act, marshal law)
This group met in 1774 and drew up rights and orgainized military preparation. Know the names of who was involved.
1st continental congress (appointed G. Washington as leader)
What was Name of British General that decided on an attack on Breed's Hill?
Gage
What was Olive Branch Petition?
Olive Branch petition was the last effort that congress did to restore peace before they declared independence and the war would begin.
Name the individuals were loyal to the independence of the colonies?
Patriots
Name The individuals that were still fighting for the Monarchs and British control?
Loyalist
who was te French military leader______that helpped the Colonial troops became effective fighters
Marquis de Lafayette
Who surreneded at Yorkstown, Va. on October 18, 1781?
General Cornwallis
The ______ signed in September of 1783 and officially recognized the independence of the United States and set boundaries
Treaty of Paris
Who were Anti-Federalists & Federalists?
Anti-federalist were people who favored States Rights and Federalist were people who wanted ta strong federal government
The Second Continental Congress issued a set of laws called the______ in 1781. What where some weaknesses?
-Articles of Confederation
-weakness of articles of confederation; state rights, taxes, court system, nation unity
What event highlighted he weakness of the central government?
Shay's Rebellion
What were the New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan?
New Jersey plan wanted legislation based on one state one vote. Virginia plan wanted legislation based on state population
Who was Daniel Shay?
Daniel Shay was the man that led the farmers to the US arsenal in Springfield
What is the Elastic Clause what purpose does it serve?
The elastic clause allowed the constitution to be flexible without being completely thrown out
Which amendment states: "Powers not delegated to the national government, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the states, or to the people?
10th Amendment
This individual wanted a National Bank fully funded by the Government?
Alexander Hamilton
This event set a precedent for armed forces to support federal authority
Whiskey Rebellion
What happened with Adams and the XYZ affair?
Adams wanted to avoid war with France so he sent three officials to meet with France but France seized 3 of American ships and sent low level officials to meet with the US. Adam insulted France officials by calling them XYZ. Next two years France and U.S had an undeclared war
What are the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Act created by Adams that raised the citizenship requirement to 5-14 years and allowed the president to deport anyone he feels threatens the country. The act also fined and jailed anyone for taking bad about the government
In (1819) what secured Florida & southern- most areas of SE America?
Treaty with Spain
In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson's VP from S.C.), developed the_______
Theory of nullification
This Brought the War of 1812 to an end?
Treaty of Ghent
Who produced the cotton gin in 1793
Eli Whitney
What happened in the Marbury v. Madison (1803) and Judicial Review?
Court case heard by the Supreme Court whereby Chief Justice John Marshall declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional thus, establishing the power of Judicial Review.
Jackson's Pet Banks printed money without gold backing which led to the ________
Panic of 1819
After gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, migration to California rose these people were known as _______
49ers
People increasingly bought and sold goods rather than make them for themselves this was known as_____
consumers
In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 this is called_______
Embargo act
Louisiana Territory split at 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude was caused by ________
Missouri Compromise
Under this law, the federal government funded treaties that forced tribes west________
Indian Removal ACT
What important event took place at Seneca Falls, NY?
First women's rights meeting in Seneca falls, New York held by two abolitionist against slavery , Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott. Where Fredrick Douglas and 300 other men and women met to talk about Women's Rights.
How did States Rights play a part in the Civil war?
States did not have the choice to choose if they wanted to be free or not. The government wanted to choose to maintain the baleen between free and slave states and the states thought that was unfair
On December 20, 1860, _______ became the first state to secede. They were followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
South Carolina
Why is Fort Sumter a historical landmark?
First battle fought in civil war and it's where they returned to raise the flag when the war was done
What was the U.S. General Winfield Scott's war strategy?
Ordered McDowell to advance on the confederate army as a surprise attack but the solders were not well trained and loss because of confederate reinforcements
Name the Battles of the Civil War?
Fort Sumter , Bull run, Shiloh, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Sherman's march, Surrender at Appomattox
Who is Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of Union army, who sat at Appomattox with Lee for the South's surrender. Became president after the civil war and was surrounded with scandals. (whiskey ring, fiscal policy)
what is the name of the document that declared that all slaves should be set free in the Confederacy/It also allowed blacks to serve in the Union army and navy.
Emancipation Proclamation
What was the name of The most famous nurse from the Union/She also helped organize the American Red Cross.
Clara Barton
Many Northerners started supporting the army after this bloody war by lending them money to help pay for the war. This money was called a ______
Greenbacks
Know details about the Gettysburg Address?
Gettysburg address was given after the horrific events at Gettysburg. Lincoln called it hallow ground
Confederate Congress enacted 1st military draft in American history; April 1862 _______ contradicted states' rights
Unpopular Conscription
Antidraft riots fueled an existing antiwar movement, called Peace Democrats by supporters, _______ by critics.
Copperheads
Confederates hoped to destroy the Union blockade with a captured Union ironclad ship,______, rebuilt and renamed the Virginia.
the Merrimack
Cherokee leader _______ was the last Confederate general to surrender at war's end.
Stand Waite
Sherman marched across Georgia in what came to be known as ______. Sherman cut a swath of destruction 300 miles long and 50-60 miles wide.
Sherman's March
John Wilkes Booth was the lead in some of_______ most famous works.
Shakespeare
In 1859 Booth was an eyewitness to the execution of_________ and stood near the scaffold with other armed men to guard against any attempt to rescue him before the hanging
John Brown
what are the events surrounding Lincoln's assassination? (Know what each person's roll was in the assassination?
.Booth was to kill Lincoln in forts theater (no one would suspect him because he performed there), Lincoln security guards were at the bar across street & his right-hand body guard could not attend. George Atzerodt was to kill vice president Johnson, William Seward and James Powell were to kill Secretary of state,
What are the details about the escape, punishment and execution of all the conspirators?
Booth was to assassinate the president then run off on a horse he had waiting for him by the door. He escapes on the horse through the navy yard bridge. He meets up with Heord and they went to Lloyd's tavern leased by Mary Suratt. Were they ridden to Dr. Mudds house to fix up Booth's leg. Then they went to Samuel cox house, then crossed the Potomac River and landed at Garretts farm..................Booth was shot in the back of the head by Garret Cabot. Lewis Paine, David Herold, George Atzerodt, and Mary Suratt were hanged. Dr. Mudd was pardon by Jackson. O'Laughlen died in prison. Edman Spangler was pardoned by Johnson.
What was the 10% Plan
The plan stated that in order to get back into the union the states had to have at least 10% of the vote in 1860 that gave loyalty to union. Issued pardons for southern war vets
Lincolns Governments were weak why?
Because they depended on the north army for survival
What was the Wade Davis Bill? Who wrote it and why? Who did they represent?
A bill created by Sen. Benjamin Wade and Congressman Harry Davis where 50% of voting taken in 1860 had to take an iron oath to the union required a state constitutional convention before elections and created safeguards for freedmen. They represented the radical republicans.
13th and 14th amendments to the constitution?
13th says involuntary servitude and slavery is not permitted and 14th guaranteed the rights of freedmen
Who was Andrew Johnson? His plans?
Andrew Johnson was white supremacist who hated aristocracy and a Jacksonian Democrat. He had the 10% plus plan that allowed the people back into union if they applied directly to him. His plan allowed the disenfranchisement of certain leading confederate; brought southern plantation owners back to power and enraged the republicans
what are Carpetbaggers?
Nickname for the northerners coming to the south to help with the newly freed blacks
what is the Tenure of Office Act?
Act that says that a government official cannot be removed without the senate's consent
what was the 40 acres and a mule?
Gave the freemen 40 acres of land a mule as a sign that they are truly free since the union has won the war and taken over southern towns
who was the KKK?
White supremacy group that used violence to stop the people from voting in order to stop the reconstruction of the country, which was taking away whites power
Three Supreme Court decisions seriously weakened the goals and operations of Reconstruction. ______, ______, ______served to limit the impact of the 14th and 15th Amendments.
Slaughterhouse cases, U.S V. Cruikshank, and U.S V. Reese
Name some Problems with Reconstruction?
Problems with reconstruction was how to pay for war, who to Taxes, what to do with the freedmen

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