US history chapter 15-16

Cold war
An area of high tension and bitter rivalry known between the United States and the Soviet Union following the end of World War II
Self-determination
Right of people to decide their own political status
Berlin blockade/airlift
A program in which the United States and Britain shift supplies by air to West Berlin during a Soviet blockade of all routes to the city; lasted from 1948-1949
Joseph Stalin
Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he used violent crackdowns on his political enemies to strengthen his control. He led the Soviet union through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war
Harry S Truman
33rd president of the United States; he became president upon the death of Pres. FDR. He led the United States through the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War
Iron Curtain
Term coined by Winston Churchhill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing the communist countries in the Soviet bloc from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War
Containment
Policy that the United States adopted in the late 1940s to stop the spread of communism; it involves providing economic aid in order to strengthen countries against the Soviets
Truman doctrine
Pres. Truman’s pledge to provide aeconomic and military aid to countries threatened by communism
Marshall plan
Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II announced by the United States Secretary of State George C Marshall
NATO
The north Atlantic Treaty organization; an international defense alliance formed in 1949
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
American citizens executed for conspiring to share information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet union
Joseph McCarthy
US senator from Wisconsin who gained national fame in the late 1940s and early 1950s by aggressively charging that Communists were working in the US government. He lost support in 1954 after making baseless attacks on US Army officials
McCarthyism
The name critics gave to Joseph McCarthy’s tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges
House un-American activities committee
Committee formed in the House of Representatives in the 1930s to investigate radical groups in the United States; it later came to focus on the threat of communism in the United States during World War II and the cold war
Edward Murrow
American broadcast journalist who persuaded many Americans against McCarthy
Communism
System of government in which there is no private property and there are no economic classes
Mao Zedong
Leader in World War II that led to Japanese withdrawing from China
Kim II Sung
Dictator from North Korea
38th parallel
Dividing line that divided Korea into northern and southern parts
Police action
The military force sent to Korea would be a United Nations force
Douglas MacArthur
American general; he commanded US troops in the southwest Pacific during World War II and administer Japan after the war ended. He later commanded UN forces at the start of the Korean War until he was removed by Pres. Truman
G.I. Bill
Act that help veterans make a smooth entry into civilian life by providing money for attending college or advanced job training
Fair deal
Plan proposed by Pres. Truman that included a number of programs in the tradition of the new deal; few of the fair deal ideas ever became law
Dixiecrats
Any of the Southern Democrats who seceded from the party in 1948 in opposition to its policy of extending cilvil rights
Dwight D Eisenhower
34th president of the United States; he led the Allied invasion of north Africa the D-Day invasion of France and commanded the Allied forces in Europe during World War II. He faced many Cold War challenges as president
United nations
An international organization that encourages cooperation among nations and prevent future wars
World bank
Helps poor countries Build their economies by providing grants and loans to help with projects that could provide jobs and wealth
International monetary fund
Organization designed to encourage economic policies that promoted international trade
GATT
Gen. agreement on tariffs and trade. International organization that works to reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of state who was the center of Eisenhowers foreign policy team
Brinkmanship
A strategy that involves countries getting up to the verge of war without actually going to war
Massive retaliation
The United States willingness to use nuclear force to settle disputes; term was coined by John Foster Dulles and used during the Cold War
Nikita Khrushchev
Communist dictator after Stalin died
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance established in 1955 of the Soviet dominated countries of Eastern Europe
Arms race
A struggle in which competing nations build more and more weapons in an effort to avoid one nation getting a clear advantage
Hydrogen bomb
A nuclear weapon that gets its power from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms
ICBMs
Intercontinental ballistic missiles; guided missiles that could travel thousands of miles and strike targets accurately
Sputnik
The first artificial satellite; launched by the Soviets
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Took charge of the nations programs for exploring outerspace
FCDA
Federal civil defense administration; helped educate and prepare the public for nuclear emergencies
Jonas Salk
Scientist who developed the polio vaccine
Baby boom
A dramatic rise in the birthrate following World War II
Levitown
A New York town containing more than 17,000 mass-produced homes which became a symbol for the mainly similar suburban towns built during the post World War II years
Sunbelt
The southern and western portions of the United States
Interstate highway system
A network of high-speed roads built to make interstate travel faster and easier
Beat generation
Rebels of the generation
Military industrial complex
When factories changed from making cars for example to making tanks