US History Chapter 1-11

Puritans
Religious group that wanted to separate from the English Church
Joint Stock Companies
Companies what allowed several investors to pool their wealth in support of a colony that would yield profit.
Conquistadors
Explorers who were lured by the prospect of vast lands filled with gold and silver
The Quakers
A protestant sect that held services without formal ministers
Montezuma
Aztec Emperor
John Winthrop
Puritan leader
William Penn
Belonged to the Quakers, acquired lots of land and wanted to create a new system of government and make sure that the Native Americans were payed for their land.
Ben Franklin
Followed the ideals of Enlightenment, proved that lightning was a form of electricity.
Jonathan Edwards
Clergy who preaches the original Puritan vision. One of the most religious scholars of his time.
The Enlightenment
Ideas that the world was governed by fixed mathematical laws rather than solely by the will of God.
Mercantilism
Economic system in which countries competed for wealth and power.
The Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals aimed at restoring the intensity and dedication of the early Puritan church.
Treaty of Paris
confirmed US independence & set boundaries
Declaration of Independence
Created of the US, free independent states
The Intolerable Acts
Parliament passes a series of laws in reaction to the boston tea party
Articles of Confederation
alliance among 13 states
Proclamation of 1763
Established a Proclamation Line where colonists were not allowed to cross (west of the Appalachian Mountains). Many did not follow this due to the expanding population.
Inflation
rising prices
Stamp Act
imposed tax on documents and printed items
Yorktown
Where US troops surrounded Cornwallis & made him surrender
Thomas Jefferson
Virginia lawyer who wrote the final draft of the Declaration of Independence, distrusted strong government & favored strong state and local government
Charles Cornwallis
British general that captured Charleston, SC
John Adams
President who was federalist,
George Washington
1st president & began creating a working government
Alexander Hamilton
secretary of the treasury, proposed to establish a national bank
John Locke
English philosopher, “people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.”
The Sugar Act
Halved the duty on foreign-made molasses, places duties on new imports, people accused of violating this act will be tried in a vice-admiralty court, not colonial court.
Patriots
supporters of independence
Loyalists
opposed independence and remained loyal to the british king
Three-Fifths Compromise
A compromise that an African American counts as ⅗ of a person in the electoral college
Federalists
supporters of new constitution (balance of powers)
Checks and balances
prevents any 1 branch from dominating all others
Bill of Rights
10 amendments of the constitution
Anti-federalists
against the constitution (strong central government)
Vicksburg
Battle where Grant forced confederated to surrender by constant siege
US Grant
Military commander for North, captured 2 confederate forts
William T Sherman
Commander of military division, raided Georgia, wanted to make the south “sick of war”
Abraham Lincoln
republican, slavery was immoral, believes that congress should abolish slavery
Emancipation Proclamation
emancipated the slaves, issued by Lincoln
The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln’s speech which stated that the country was a union, not just a collection of states
Total War
All resources and industries put their efforts into fighting for the war
13th amendment
abolished slavery
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a moral struggle. In protest to the fugitive slave act
Robert E. Lee
Southern commander in the army
Abraham Lincoln
president, created the emancipation proclamation,
Harriet Beecher Stowe
published Uncle Tom’s cabin, hates slavery
Popular Sovereignty
the right to vote for or against slavery
Fort Sumter
Union forts in the south, an Island in Charleston harbor
Harper’s Ferry
John Brown tried to start a general slave uprising, 21 men black & white, didn’t happen, Brown was executed
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
The fight in congress to make these states clave free or a slave state
Bleeding Kansas
bloody violence in the state began during the fighting to make kansas a slave state or a free state
Bull Run
first bloodshed on the battlefield, little creek, southern victory
John Wilkes Booth
Southern sympathizer, assassinated Lincoln
Gettysburg
most decisive battle of the civil war, confederate Lee vs. Union Buford, 3 day battle, it broke Lee’s “invincibility”
Antietam
bloodiest single-day battle in history
The Ku Klux Klan
prevents blacks from voting, wants to throw out reconstruction and aid planter class
The Carpetbaggers
Northerners who moved to the south after the war
Scalawags
wanted to improve their economic position and didn’t want wealthy planters to have power
Thomas Edison
perfected incandescent light bulbs, established world first research laboratory
Andrew Carnegie
controlled almost entire steel industry, made his fortune from railroads
John D Rockefeller
established standard oil company, forced smaller oil companies to sell their companies
George Westinghouse
added innoventions that made electricity safer and less expensive
Samuel Gompers
Jewish immigrant, led cigar makers international union to join other craft unions
Eugene V Debs
attempted to reform such an industrial union, won strike for high wages and went to jail for pullman strike
Boss Tweed
William H. Tweed, head of Tammany Hall
Edmund Drake
Successfully used a steam engine to drill oil, started oil business
Mother Harris Jones
organizer of women’s labor movement, helped enforce child labor laws
Sitting Bull
leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux
Tammany Hall
New York’s most powerful democratic political machine
Bessemer Process
injects air into molten iron to remove carbon and other impurities
Vertical Integration
profits maximized by controlling all the steps while producing
Horizontal Integration
control all manufacturing of something, monopoly
Sand Creek
massacre where the Cheyenne tribe raided trails off their reservation for supplies. Colonel John Chivington round up the people who did not want to fight and attacked them on the fort where Chivington said would be safe.
Wounded Knee
gathered up 350 dying Sioux, demanded to give up weapons, a shot was fired, soldiers opened fire with deadly cannon
The Dawes Act
broke up reservations and give land to each family, individuality. Remaining land will go to whites
Jim Crow Laws
racial segregation laws
Upton Sinclair
Muckraking journalist who wrote The Jungle
The Jungle
Book written by Upton Sinclair about the meat packing industry
James Garfield
Independent presidential candidate, gave reformers most of his patronage jobs once elected
Rutherford B. Hayes
wanted civil service reform, president
Grover Cleveland
president, attempted to lower tariff but congress refused
Prohibition
banning of alcoholic beverages
Muckrakers
journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business
Scientific Management
improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts, aka the assembly line
Referendum
a vote on the initiative
Recall
voters could remove public officers for elected positions by forcing them to participate in another election
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP)
Full equality among the races, did not support the progressive movement
Suffrage
the right to vote
Federal Trade Commission
A “watchdog” agency, investigate possible violations of regulatory statutes. Enforced periodic reports from companies and end unfair business practices
Meat Inspection Act
Dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpacking industries
William McKinley
Ohioan, elected into office, his election collapsed populism
Theodore Roosevelt
president, wanted to clean up the slaughterhouse
William Howard Taft
president, expand Roosevelt’s reform and lower tariffs
Clayton Antitrust Act
prohibited corporations from getting stocks of other countries in effort to avoid monopoly
Chinese Immigrants
300,00, came for gold rush, built transcontinental railway
Ellis Island
immigration inspection station (physical and governmental) in New York
Angel Island
immigration station in San Fran Bay, harsh questioning and detention
Chinese Exclusion Act
stopped chinese for coming into the US except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials
The Bull Moose Party
A progressive party. Wants direct elections of senator, woman suffrage, 8 hour workdays, and federal law against child labor.
The Gentlemen’s Agreement
Japan limits immigration of unskilled workers for the US to repeal segregation order
William Jenning Bryan
Democrat and Nebraskan
Marquis de Lafayette
Military leader, foreign
Santa Fe
A route from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is used by traders
17th amendment
Amendment that provides for the election of the US senators by the people rather than by the state legislatures
Conservation
Planned management of natural resources, which involves protecting the environment.
Draft
A required enrollment in the armed services
John Marshall
Federalist chief justice who declared that part of Congress’s Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.
James Monroe
President elected in 1816, very invested in foreign affairs
Andrew Jackson
President in 1828, embraced expanding economies, territories, and democracy.
John C Calhoun
Southerner who convinced congressmen from their regions to approve the Tariff of 1816.
Jeffersonian Republicanism
Jefferson’s theory of government where the people should control the government and that a simple government best suited for the needs of the people.
Judicial Review
The ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional.
The Great Plains
A vast grassland that extends through the central portion of North American
James A. Polk
1844 president, a slaveholder and firmly favored the annexation of Texas. Went to war with Mexico in attempt to gain Texas, New Mexico, and California.
Jacksonian Democracy
Jackson’s ideal of political power that gives common people a chance to participate in government.
Frederick Douglas
An African American who escaped slavery and became an eloquent and outspoken critic of slavery.
Samuel Morse
A New England artist who created the telegraph
Dred Scott Vs. Sanford
Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his freedom on the ground that living in a free state, which makes him a free. Ruled against Dred because property could not be free.
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical white abolitionist who was also a young editor
The Confederacy
Secessionist states that left the United States
Manifest Destiny
A belief that the expansion of the US throughout the american continent was both justified and inevitable
Free-Enterprise
An economic system in which private business operates in competition and and largely free of state control.
The War of 1812
This battle fostered a strong sense of national pride. America declared War on the British after the British interfered with America’s international trade
Cotton Gin
A machine for separating cotton from its seeds
Santa Anna
Mexican General. Tried to crush Texas revolt. Lost battles to Winfield Scott and zachary taylor in the mexican war
The California Gold Rush
People flocked to California due to the overwhelming amount for gold found
The National Bank
Bank that would issue paper money and handle taxes and other government funds.
Natural Rights
Rights people have under natural law. They are given to any human on this earth, no matter race or religion
Battle of Bunker Hill
first battle of the revolutionary war. 1775. British troops drive Americans from Breed’s hill to Bunker Hill. Americans had run out of gunpowder.
The Union
an organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights
The Populists
A member of a political party looking to represent the people
Trust Busting
Theodore Roosevelt’s term for prosecuting monopolies
Age of Exploration
European ships traveling to find new trade routes between the 1500’s and 1700’s
Great compromise
was an agreement between large and small states made a the constitutional convention of 1787 and defined the legislative structure and representation each state would receive.
Internal Revenue Act
Increased the income tax rates established by the Revenue Act.
Anaconda Plan
A plan for the Union to surround the Confederates. Emphasized blocking the South’s ports then would split the south in two by invading the Mississippi river.
The Mayflower Compact
The first written framework for government establish in what now is the US.
The Revolutionary War
The war for the US independence. America is fighting from their freedom from Britain.
Religious Tolerance
People allow other people to think or practice other religions and beliefs.
Gospel of Wealth
Article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889. It described the responsibility of philanthropy to the upper middle class and self made rich.
Red Cloud
important leader of the oglala lakota.
Pickett’s Charge
An infantry assault ordered by a confederate general robert E. Lee against george G. Meade’s union
Fredericksburg
A battle in Fredericks, virginia between general Robert E. Lee’s confederate army and the union army of Potomac commanded by major general ambrose burnside
Appomattox Court House
One of the last battles of the American civil war. Confederate general Robert E. Lee’s army surrendered to union army under lieutenant general Ulysses S Grant.
John Brown
A radical abolitionist who believed in violence to overthrow the slavery system. He led an attack with his brothers on a pro-slavery residents. Attacked and occupied Harpers Ferry.
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer who was funded by Spain. Was credited for the discovery of America and treated Native Americans horribly.
The Declaratory Act
An act which asserted Parliament’s full right “to bind the colonies and people of America in all cases whatsoever”
Little Big Horn
A battle between the US Colonel Cluster and Native tribes. The Natives outnumbered Cluster and overwhelmed. Was known as “Clusters last stand”
Transcontinental Railroad
Central Pacific and Union Pacific created a railway that stretched from east to west. Met in Promontory, Utah. Many immigrants built this and many died.
The Elastic Clause
Gives congress the power to pass any laws that
Louisiana territory
The purchase by the US from France of the Louisiana territory in 1803. President Thomas Jefferson set this up fearing that The French wanted to establish an empire in North America
Battle of New Orleans
A battle had no bearing on the outcome of the war, but elevated national pride, which had suffered a number of setbacks during the War of 1812. Was the last armed engagement between the United States and Britain.
The Mexican War
First U.S. armed conflict fought on foreign soil,
The American System
system that consisted of three parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other “internal improvements” to develop profitable markets for agriculture.
Free-soiler
minor but influential political party in the pre-Civil War period of American history that opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories.
Metacom
Wampanoag leader who waged King Philip’s War with New England colonists who had encroached on Native American territory.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American Mechanical engineer who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. One of the first manager consultants.
Ida Tarbell
American teacher and author and journalist. Leading muckracker of the progressive movement. Thought to have pioneered investigative journalism.
John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony of Jamestown, Virginia. Saved by pocahontas
Olaudah Equiano
prominent African in London. A freed slave who supported the British movement to end the slave trade.
Hessians
30,000 German troops hired by the British to help fight during the American Revolution
Daniel Shays
American Soldier. One of the leaders of shays rebellion.
Stephen Douglas
American politician from Illinois. Designer of the Kansas Nebraska act. He was a US representative and senator and democratic nominee for president in 1860 losing to Abraham Lincoln.
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the aztec empire.
Charles Sumner
Antislavery leader, elected into congress as a free-soilers, beaten by Preston Brooks,
Jefferson Davis
Mexican war hero, US senator from Mississippi. President of the confederate states of america. (Princess Leia- president of rebellion)
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the US. Was a progressive and and governor of NJ
William Seward
Served as governor of NY and was a secretary of state during the civil war. Won a seat in the New york state senate
Preston Brooks
Beat charles sumner with a cane. Democratic representative from south carolina.
Jim Beckwourth
American mountain man, fur trader and explorer
Edward Curtis
American ethnologist and photographer of the American West and of native american people
Thomas Nast
Political cartoonist
Lewis and Clark
First American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States. Their goal was to find the most direct and practicable water communication across the country
John Quincy Adams
American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States. He was also a diplomat, Senator and member of the House of Representatives
Sam Houston
American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state.
Edwin Stanton
an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War
Samuel Adams
an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
John Hancock
Wrote a bold signature on the declaration of independence
Thomas Hobbes
Philosophiser
Ann Hutchinson
puritan spiritual advisor
Molly Pitcher
Nickname given to a woman said to have fought in the American Battle of Monmouth. Most likely was mary ludwig hays. Stepped in for husband
Dolly Madison
American first lady and wife of james madison, the fourth president of the US.