US History Ch 5

Parliamentary sovereignty
What is the principle that gave Parliament the sole and supreme power to govern the colonies?
Taxation Without Representation
What is the idea that it is unfair to tax someone without giving them a voice in government? This was a colonial complaint concerning the taxes passed by Parliament.
John Locke
Who was the English philosopher who advocated the idea of a ‘social contract’ in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed?
King George III
Who was the King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused to the accept the Olive Branch Petition?
Neolin
Who was the Delaware Prophet that urged Indians to return to their traditional culture?
Pontiac’s War
What was the 1763 war between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area?
Paxton Boys
What name was given to the group of settlers living in the Appalachians near present day Harrisburg, that wanted protection from Indian attacks? They raided a small band of peaceful Indians in Lancaster County. Later, they made an armed march to Philadelphia in 1764 to show their discontent. A compromise was reached.
George Grenville
Who was the Prime Minister of Britain in 1763, he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law to try smugglers in vice-admiralty courts which were controlled by British officers and had no jury? He did this to end the smuggling.
Proclamation of 1763
This act was passed after the French and Indian War. It was to organize Britain’s vast new North American empire, and to stabilize relations with Native Americans. It did not allow colonists to settle or buy land west of the Appalachians.
Customs Service Reform
What act was passed that authorized the Royal Navy to act as customs agents in American waters?
vice-admiralty court
What courts were set up in the colonies to try maritime cases? This court did not have a jury and was operated by British officials. It was an attempt to stop smuggling.
writs of assistance
What were the court orders that authorized customs officers to conduct general searches of property for contraband?
Sugar Act (Revenue Act of 1764)
What act lowered the tax on molasses, to discourage smuggling, but added new duties on textiles, wine, coffee, indigo, and sugar?
Stamp Act of 1765
What was Parliament’s first direct tax on the Colonies? This act taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, dice and playing cards. This act affected the lives of all colonists.
Virginia Resolves
What name was given to Patrick Henry’s speech that condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies? Patrick Henry’s famous quote was made during this speech, “no taxation without representation.” May 30, 1765
Patrick Henry
Who made the famous “Give me Liberty or Give Death” speech in the Virginia House of Burgesses? He was protesting the Stamp Tax.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest. Led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Non-Importation
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
Declaratory Act
This 1766 Act repealed the Stamp Act, but stated that Great Britain can rule the colonies anyway she sees fit
Townshend Revenue Act
What act passed by the British Parliament in 1767 placed a tax on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea to help increase British revenue?
writs of assistance
General search warrants employed by Britain in an effort to prevent smuggling in the American colonies. (part of the Townshed Revenuer Act)
Quartering Act
What act required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies?
Subscription Rolls
Petitions of disapproval of British taxes and actions against the colonies. Colonists promised not to buy British goods.
Boston Massacre
The violent clast between British troops and a Boston crowd on March 5, 1770. Five citizens were killed when the British troops fired into the crowd that had been harassing them. This tragedy showed the colonial resentment of British soldiers in Boston.
Cirpus Attucks
African American who was shot and died at the Boston Massacre many consider him to be the first American to die in the Revolutionary War.
John Adams
Lawyer from Massachuetss who defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial. He believed in ‘innocent until proven guilty’. Supporter of the American Revolution and later became the second US President.
Samuel Adams
One of the founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence. He is believed to be the leader of the Boston Tea Party.
Tea Act of 1773
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies which was attempt to save the Company from bankruptcy. This tax led to the Boston Tea Party.
Committees of Correspondence
A network of communication set up in Massachusetts to inform other colonies of actions of the British that threatened colonial rights.
Circular Letter
The letter circulated in 1767 throughout the colonies protesting the Townsend Acts and urging the colonists to jointly sign petitions of protests. This was influential in uniting the colonists to work together against the British.
Gaspée Affair
On June 9, 1772, HMS Gaspée, a British revenue boat enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water while chasing the American boat Hannah. The ship was attacked, boarded, stripped of valuables, and torched by American patriots.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor.
Intolerable Acts
A response to Boston Tea Party, four acts passed by Parliament in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troops.
Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
Massachusetts Government Act
One of the Intolerable Act which reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor
Administration of Justice Act
Part of the Intolerable Act that stated royal officials of Massachusetts were to be tried in Britain.
Quebec Act
Passed in 1774 by the British Parliament, it extended political and legal concessions to the people of Quebec.
Suffolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias.
First Continental Congress
The meeting in Philadelphia, on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts, to discuss the uncertain and dangerous relations with England, and to approve the Suffolk Resolves.
Non importation
Congress created this association which was an agreement to halt all trade with Britain until Parliament repealed the Intolerable acts.
Paul Revere
American silversmith who became a hero after his famous ride to warn of the British advance on Lexington and Concord.
midnight ride
April 18, 1775, Paul Revere, William Dawes, Dr. Samuel Prescott to warn minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
William Dawes
This person owned a tanning business and was active in Boston’s militia and is best known for his midnight ride with Paul Revere to warn minutemen that the British were advancing on Lexington and Concord.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
April 19, 1775 British vs. Americans exchanged gunfire in Lexington; the fighting spread to nearby Concord; “shot heard around the world”; official start of the American Revolution
Shot heard round the world
The first shot fired of the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord when a group of armed minutemen confronted a British column.
minutemen
Members of the Massachusetts colony militia who could be ready to fight the British in a moments notice.
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutionary War; it actually took place at nearby Breed’s Hill, Massachusetts, on June 17, 1775. The colonists showed that they could hold their own against the British.
William Prescott
Patriot leader at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. Said “don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes”
The Second Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia April 1775 to raise money for an army and navy in order to organize the colonies for war. They elected George Washington to command the army.
George Washington
Who was appointed to be the Commander of the Continental Army
Olive Branch Petition
Sent by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 asking the king to repeal the Intolerable Acts. Stating its loyalty to the king. The king rejected the peace offering.
Prohibitory Act 1775
George III’s dismissal of the Olive Branch Petition which declared the colonies to be in rebellion; later forbade all trade and shipping between the two areas
German Mercenaries
Germans hired by Britain to fight against the colonists.
Lord Dunmore
Royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Richard Henry Lee
The member of Congress that proposed the resolution calling for independence of the American colonies
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared independence for the American colonies.
John Hancock
Which patriot leader was the president of the Second Continental Congress and the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence?
British advantages
More money, well trained army, better weapons and supplies, had a Navy
American advantages
Fighting on home ground, good decisions by Generals , fighting for their rights and freedoms,French alliance.
loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
torries
Another name for Loyalists
Patriot
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution
Battle of New York
Washington’s troops were outnumbered, lacked training, and had poor equipment…Britan had more troops. Americans Retreated to New Jersey with heavy losses
Washington Crossing the Delaware
Washington lead his men across the Delaware River in the middle of the night. Surprised the Trenton garrison, and it lead to the Battle of Princeton
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Horatio Gates
Colonial General that defeated General Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga. This was the turning point of the war.
General Burgoyne
British general who surrendered at Saratoga
Valley Forge
Place in Pennsylvania where George Washington and his Continental Army spent the winter of 1777 and 1778. It allowed for Washington to regroup and retrain his army.
Treaty of Amity and Commerce
Feb 6. 1778 with France; France recognized the US and offered trade concession, including important privileges to American shipping
Treaty of Alliance
In the event France and England went to war French agreed to refuse truce or peace until independence of the US shall be assured by treaty or treaties that terminate the war. (1778)
Nathanael Greene
A major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington’s most gifted and dependable officer.
Swamp Fox
What was the nickname of Francis Marion, a colonial military officer, who led a successful guerilla war in the Carolinas against British troops during the American Revolution?
Nathan Hale
A colonial soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British, famous quote:, “I only regret that i have but one life to lose for my country”
Benedict Arnold
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Charles Cornwallis
Commander of the British forces in the American Revolutionary War; surrendered to the colonists at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said ” I have not yet begun to fight.”
Ethan Allen
Who was the Vermont blacksmith that led the Green Mountain Boys in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga? He captured the Fort, and took control of a valuable supply of cannons and gun powder, also took control of a key route into Canada.

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