us history benchmark #1

Washington
The first us president
Democratic-Republican
strict interpretation of the constitution, supported by poor and farmers, favored france in foriegn affairs, weak central gov
Federalist
loose interpretation of the constitution, supported by merchants and rich, favored great britian in foreign affairs, strong central gov
bill of rights
the first ten amendments or changes made to the constitution, while washington was in office
whisky rebellion
under the leadership of george washington, the new gov was able to demonstrate power by putting down this rebellion of farmers in western pennsylvania
judiciary act
this act signed by washington defined the judicial branch and established the court system
pickneys treaty
this treaty, signed between the us and spain, gave the us the right to move ships in and out of the mississippi river without the interference of the spanish
jefferson
secretary of state
knox
secretary of war
jays treaty
this treaty signed by washington was very unpopular. it showed that the us wanted to avoid war with great britain at all cost
XYZ affair
in this incident the french asked the us to pay them a huge bribe in exchange for not harrassing american ships. americans cried out “millions for defense, but not a penny for tribute”
alien and sedition acts
these acts were passed when john adams was president to silence those criticizing the gov and to limit the power of democratic-republicans
john adams
this was the second president of the us, and the man that “stole” the presidency from Andrew Jackson in 1824 when he struck “the corrupt bargain” with henry clay
virginia and kentucky resolutions
Resolutions passed in 1798 that attacked the Alien and Sedition acts as being unconstitutional
midnight judges
these men were put on the federal court in an attempt to keep the federalists in power when john adams was leaving office
peaceful transfer of power
why the election of 1800 was called the “revolution of 1800”
louisiana purchase
jefferson doubled the size of the us when he struck this deal with france
lewis and clark
these men were sent to explore the louisiana purchase
sacagawea
Native America woman who became guide and translator of lewis and clark expedition
embargo act of 1807
jefferson passed this law to make it illegal for the us to trade with GB or F. the purpose was to hurt those nations but it really hurt us
war of 1812
this war was fought against the british and is often known as the second american revolution
Clay and Calhoun
The two most famous war hawks who wanted to go to war with Great Britain to gain control of Canada.
James Madison
The president during the War of 1812
Washington DC
City burned to the ground ruing the War of 18812
General Andrew Jackson
This man gained popularity in the War of 1812, when he was the general in the Battle of New Orleans
Hartford Convention
Meeting held during the War of 1812 because New England states did not want to fight Great Britain, marking the end of the federalist party
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the war of 1812 giving the U.S no new territory but a new sense of pride
Era of good feelings
Name given to hte period of time after the war of 1812 when the U.S felt a special sense of national pride
Hudson River School
Type of painting, prevalent in the early 1800’s that focused on American themes and natural landscapes
Monroe Doctrine
this document states that Europe is no longer welcome in the western hemisphere (central and south america)
Adams-onis treaty
treaty made Florida part of the United States
convention of 1818
Convention that established the 49th parallel as the northern border of the louisiana territory
admission fee, 36;30
Two parts of the missouri compromise
Andrew Jackson
president and founder of the democratic party, known as the president of the “common man”
spoil system
jackson started this practice of replacing government officials with members of his own party upon being elected
Cherokee
Jackson moved that this group of Native
Americans from Georgia to Oklahoma in the “Trail of Tears”
pet banks
Jackson tried to destroy the national bank by depositing national money in banks run by his friends
whigs
those who opposed Andrew Jackson as president
SC exposition and protest
Calhoun and Jackson split over calhoun’s paper saying that the states have the right to nullify federal law
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the U.S supreme court for 30 years, a federalist and always handed down rulings that strengthed the federalist government
McCaugh vs Maryland
court case where John Marshall set the precedent that a state couldn’t tax a federal institution
Gibbon vs Ogden
case where John Marshall set the precedent that the Federal Government has the power over interstate trade
Wenchester vs Georgia
John marshall declared that the stae of Georgia had no legal right to force the Cherokee Indians to move from their homelands

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