US History Before 1877

Oliver Cromwell
Established the Navigation Acts under Charles II
Sir Robert Walpole
Developed the Salutary Neglect: England’s beneficial policy of not interfering with American colonies affairs, that ways they could flourish.
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
John Locke
Theorist of social contract. He believed that the rule of God superseded government authority. If you violate our rights we have the right to rebel.
Baron de Montesquieu
Developed separation and balance of power.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Wrote book Social Contract. He believed that democracy was the best way of ensuring the general welfare while maintaining individual freedom under the rule of law.
Jonathan Edwards
Famous sermon “Sinners in the hands of an Angry God”. (may the fires and brimstone of hell scare you into heaven)
George Whitefield
He believed that there should be equality before God because God loves everyone the same. Credited with starting the Great Awakening.
The French and Indian War
The #1 cause of the American Revolution. Also called “the Seven years War”, it was a war between the French and Indians and the English over control of the new world.
General Edward Braddock
Commander in chief for Great Britain. Attempted to drive the french out of the Ohio River Valley and was later killed and defeated at French fort Duquesne.
Treaty of Paris 1763
a 1763 agreement between Britain and France that ended the French and Indian war.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
Unsuccessful attack by Ottawa chief Pontiac and his allies against British forts on the northwestern frontier in an attempt to drive out European settlers.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Issued order of King George III that prohibited settlement of newly acquired lands west of the appalachian mountains in order to keep peace with the Native Americans.
George Grenville
Appointed by King George III as the Prime Minister, he had the opinion that the colonists should obey the laws and pay a part of the cost of defending and administering the British empire (the after effects and costs if the Seven Years War); passed the Sugar and Stamp Acts; “lets get money out of the colonists” He also wanted to enforce the navigation acts.
Sam Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.He helped organize Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts.
currency act
(1764) restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using “hard” currency (gold and silver)
quartering act
Act passed in 1765 that required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
stamp act
A law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards. It was the first DIRECT tax to violate the imperial compromise. It is the #2 cause of the Revolution.
Stamp Act congress
meeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated.
Declaratory Act
this 1766 Act repealed the Stamp Act, but stated that Great Britain can rule the colonies anyway she sees fit
Townsend Act
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instituted another movement to stop importing British goods.
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Author and member of Second Continental Congress.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans after receiving taunts from them.
Crispus Attucks
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War.
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies – undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
a 1773 protest in which colonists dressed as Indians dumped British tea into Boston harbor
Intolerable Acts
4 acts passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party: Port of Boston closed (Boston Port Act), reduced power of assemblies in colonies (Massachusetts Govt Act), provided for quartering of troop in peoples homes (Quartering Act), and established the Quebec Act
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory.
First Continental Congress
The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Adopted by the First Continental Congress, it promised obedience to the king, but denied parliament’s right to tax the colonies. John Adam helped draft it.
Lexington and Concord
Where the “Shot heard round the world” took place. The 1st battle of the American Revolution.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Bunker Hill
the first important battle of the Revolutionary War (1775)
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. He turns the rebellion into a revolution.
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the
majority of this document.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas at night, Washington’s soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the Hessians. No Americans were lost!
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
Francis Marion
South Carolina militia leader nicknamed the “Swamp Fox” for his hit-and-run attacks on the British during the American Revolution.
Battle of Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The war was over, and colonists had won!
General Rochambeau
French general who helped Americans and George Washington win the Battle of Yorktown.
Admiral de Grasse
A French admiral. He had a powerful fleet in the West Indies that he offered to Washington to help in an attack on Cornwallis at Yorktown.
Bernardo de Gálvez
A Spanish governor who came over to help America. Kept New Orleans open for Americans to use.
Baron de Kalb and Baron von Stueben
Prussians used in training.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution.
Count Casimir Pulaski
a Polish patriot; Gave his life for freedom.
Thaddeus Kosciuszko
Polish officer who came to America to fight with the Continental Army. A fortification (defense) expert.
Mary Ludwig Hays (Molly Pitcher) & Margaret Corbin
Both women stepped in for their wounded husbands during the revolution.
Deborah Sampson
American Revolutionary soldier who fought disguised as a man and was wounded before her secret was discovered. She was the first known American woman to impersonate a man in order to join the army.
Mrs. Schuyler Burning Her Wheat Fields on the Approach of the British
Painting by Emanuel Leutze which showed that British like to take over things, so they will have nothing to eat or take if you burn the wheat.
Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren
writers who contributed to the political ideas and the reasons why we fight the revolution.
Sarah Fulton
Mother of the Boston Tea Party. Put red clay on the men to help portray them as Indians.
Catherine Schuyler
she was a heroine who set a field of wheat on fire so the British would not be able to get food from her family farm.
Nancy Hart
North Georgia “war woman” who killed British soldiers and murdered 5 tories.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
The Articles of Confederation
America’s first constitution which provided for a new central government with limited powers
The Constitution
the supreme law of the United States of America adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
Adam Smith
father of the free enterprise system.
3 Unalienable Rights
Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
John Hancock
Signed the declaration of independence first and made it big so the king wouldn’t have to try to read it with spectacles,
Northwest Ordinance
(1787) defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. The ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Land Ordinance
Authorized surveys and the division of public lands in the western part of the country. Specified sizes of lots and acreages. 1785. Thomas Jefferson’s idea.
The Nationalists/Federalists
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Washington.
The Anti-Nationalists
Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, John Hancock
Patrick Henry
Famous for saying “Give me Liberty or Give me death!”
Shay’s Rebellion
a 1786 revolt in Massachusetts led by farmers in reaction to high taxes
James Madison
Father of the Constitution
Roger Sherman
He helped draft the Great Compromise (CT Compromise) that determined how states would be represented in Congress. He is the only man who signed all 3 documents.
3/5ths Compromise
agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in Congress
William Patterson
Proposed New Jersey Plan
James Madison
Proposed the Virginia Plan
Bill of Rights
1st 10 amendments
George Washington
American commander-in-chief of continental army; first president, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule. President of the Convention.
Great Compromise
Created by Roger Sherman. States would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house.
The Federalist
A series of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788
The five freedoms
The first amendment. Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition.
Tariff of 1789
Tax on imports and all foreign shipping. It was meant to raise money and stimulate the merchant marine rather than to protect any industry. Resulted in surplus.
Established by Washington, this group of official advisors became a regular feature of the executive branch. Consisted of Henry Knox,Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph, Alexander Hamilton.
Henry Knox
Secretary of War in Washington’s cabinet.
Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of State in Washington’s cabinet. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Edmund Randolph
Attorney General in Washington’s cabinet.
Alexander Hamilton
Secretary of Treasury in Washington’s cabinet.
Judiciary Act of 1789
legislation passed by congress that created the federal court system
Compromise of 1790
James Madison said if the capital was moved out of Philadelphia then he would pass Hamilton’s financial plan. Philadelphia said if a slave lives there for more than 6 months then he was free. Washington DC was then made out of a part of Maryland.
First Bank of the United States
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, the Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10 mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government.
The French Revolution
the French people rebelled against their King, Louis XVI, to overthrow him. Afterwards, a republic was started, where revolutionists began to controversially cut the heads off of nobles. The Republican party was formed because of the French Revolution, and brought much inspiration to the U.S. at first. However, this didn’t last long, as Federalists became afraid of the possibility of such extremes that were shown in France.
Reign of Terror
a period during the French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
A French general, political leader, and emperor. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He also sold the Louisiana territory to President Jefferson in 1803 for a very cheap price.
1778 Alliance
Treaty were America was obligated to come to the aid of France during wartime. The Americans wanted cancellation of this treaty in the fall of 1798.
Proclamation of Neutrality 1793
Issued by George Washington, this document stated that the United States would remain neutral in the French Revolution; Thomas Jefferson resigned from the cabinet because of this order
Citizen Genet
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England. This endangered the proclamation of Neutrality.
War of Words
ten years of verbally fighting with Britain
1796 Elections
This was the race for the presidency after George Washington retired. John Adams was the Federalist Party’s candidate and Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican’s candidate. It was a very intense race, with the issues focusing heavily on personalities. John Adams, who was mostly supported in New England, won the election and became president. As runner-up, Thomas Jefferson became vice president.
Quasi War
Term widely used to describe French and American naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. Neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each other
Orders in Council
closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless the vessels 1st stopped at a British port
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.
Pinckney Treaty
1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans. It also changed floridas border.
XYZ Affair
incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams’ losing a second term as president
Alien Act
Allowed the President to remove any foreigner from the country who was thought to be dangerous. Immigrants had to live in America 14 years before being able to vote.
Sedition Act
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens’ rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amendment.
Kentucky Resolution
Written by Jefferson. Declaration passed that said that each state had the right to decide whether a federal law was constitutional or not. (Anti Alien and Sedition Act)
Virginia Resolution
Madison said a state could interpose, or place itself between the federal government and its citizens. (Anti Alien and Sedition Act)
1800 election
First peaceful transfer of power.Thomas Jefferson and John Adams was elected by representatives in congress. There was a tie between Aaron Burr and Jefferson for president, but in the end Jefferson won.
Hamilton vs Burr Duel
though they were both Federalists, hated each other. Burr ends up losing to Jefferson, causing him to hate Hamilton even more. Burr then challenges him to a duel.Burr shoots and kills Hamilton. This was the death of the federalist party’s “High Priest”.
Benjamin Banneker and Pierre-Charles L’Enfant
Helped design Washington DC. Banneker was the first African American to have a government job.
midnight appointments
The name given to the 16 Federalists granted judgeships by the Judiciary Act of 1801. Hoping to keep the judiciary branch of the federal government under the Federalists’ control, President John Adams made the final appointments on his last night in office.
John Marshall
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice by John Adams. Oversaw Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Marbury vs Madison
landmark case establishing the principle of judicial review. (1803)
Albert Gallatin
Jefferson’s Secretary of Treasury who was a financial wizard that reduced government spending, cut taxes, and balanced the budget.
Louisiana Purchase
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million. Known as the best land deal in US history.
Treaty of San Ildefonso
a secret treaty signed in 1800 which stated the formal transfer of Louisiana from Spanish to France again; it was kept a secret from Britain because France was afraid that they would try to take control of it
Robert Livingston and James Monroe
representatives sent to France by Jefferson to negotiate purchase of New Orleans.
Pierre Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture
Educated soldier/former slave from Haiti.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States’ new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
Corps of Discovery
Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members
native american woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the lewis and clark expedition
Clark’s personal African American slave
Zebulon Pike
American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase
Barbary Wars
Or Tripolitan Wars. Two wars between the United States of America and Barbary States in North Africa. At issue was the pirates’ demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea. American naval power attacked the pirate cities and extracted concessions of fair passage from their rulers. (Pasha Yusuf-Tripoli)
Stephen Decatur
led American sailors to raid Tripoli harbor and burned the Philadelphia down to the waterline to stop the pirates from using the ship
William Eaton
American helping overthrow Barbary Coast Pirates (Jefferson).
Battle of Austerlitz
The battle where Napoleon defeated the Austrian and Russian armies.
Berlin and Milan Decrees
issued by Napoleon stating that neutral ships trading with Britain or obeying the Orders in Council could be seized
Non-importation Act 1806
barred British manufactured goods from entering American ports; warned the British what to expect if they continued to violate American neutrality rights
Chesapeake Affair 1807
how the British react to Non-importation act
Trade Embargo
this act forbid American ships to sail to foreign ports. Didn’t influence France or Great Britain. Americans suffered most
1808 Election
Jefferson is allowed to run again but chooses not to. Jefferson favors secretary of state James Madison, who is nominated by democratic republicans. Charles Pinkney nominated by federalists. James Madison’s campaign is hurt because of his participation in the embargo act but he still pulls through and wins
Clay and Calhoun
War Hawks!
Repeal of 1809 embargo
Occurred as Thomas Jefferson leaves office
Non-intercourse act 1809
reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France
Macon’s bill 1810
restored trade with Britain and France but that if one country agreed to respect neutral rights than the US would prohibit trade with that nation’s foe
War of 1812
a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Francis Scott Key
wrote the Star Spangled Banner
Oliver Hazard Perry
Squadron on Lake Erie
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30′ within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Tallmadge Amendment
Free all slaves in Missouri gradually.This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

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