US History 1st Semester Study Guide – 1

New England colonies
• Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,
New Hampshire
• Puritans settled-seeking religious freedom
• Covenant community — direct democracy
through town meetings
Middle Colonies
• New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
• Mixed settlers, Quakers, Baptist, Methodists
• Pennsylvania — Quakers — William Penn
Southern colonies
• Maryland, Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina,
South Carolina
• England ruled settlement of southern colonies
• Middle Passage — slaves forcibly brought from Africa
Mayflower Compact
• First governing document of the New World
• Written by the colonists later known as the
House of Burgesses
• First representative body in the New World
• Virginia Assembly today
• First permanent English settlement in New
World, Virginia – 1607
• First blacks to arrive — 1619
• Tobacco — cash crop
John Smith
• One of leaders of the new colony of Jamestown
• No work — no eat policy
•Virginia’s elite settlers given large land grants
from King of England
Proclamation of 1763
• British decision that colonist were not to
move west of the Appalachians
Stamp Act 1765
• British parliament passes this act to collect
money on debts
• Imposes a tax on printed documents
including wills, newspapers, and playing
Patrick Henry
• Led opposition of the Stamp Act and is
famous for his quote “Give me liberty or
give me death!”
• Anti-Federalist — opposed the Constitution
for he feared it would take power from the
Townshend Acts
• Taxed goods that were imported into the
colonies….such as lead, glass, paint, paper
and tea.
• ‘Taxation without Representation’
screamed the colonists. Protested the
Act….later repealed.
Boston Massacre 1770
• Also known as the Boston ript, was an
incident in Boston which lead to deaths of
five civilians at the hands of British
Boston Tea Party
• As a result of the Tea Act in 1773, the
colonists organized the Boston Tea Party,
in which the colonists dumped British tea
into the Boston harbor.
John Locke
• Major influence on the founding fathers
especially Thomas Jefferson…. with his
ideas of individual liberties, social contract,
and limited government.
• One passage of the Declaration of
lndependence…straight from John Locke’s
‘Common Sense’ 1776
• Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine.
• Argument for the freedom from British
• People were undecided as to break away
from England.
Declaration of Independence 1776
• Author — Thomas Jefferson was selected as
the draft composer.
• Document announcing to King George of
Britain and the rest of the world…our
independence from England and no longer
under British rule.
All men created equal….life, liberty,
pursuit of happiness.
Articles of Confederation
• Served as U.S. first constitution -1777
• Many weaknesses — proved govt was not
strong enough
• No Executive, No Judiciary, No power to
tax, No Military draft. No power to
regulate interstate disputes
• One vote per state
• Select groups of colonial militia….highly mobile, rapidly deployed forces to respond to war threats immediately…hence their name.
Shays Rebellion
• Daniel Shays — lead farmers on protest of
higher state taxes in Mass.
• Showed government was not strong enough to respond to crisis situations
• Farmers faced problems from debts they
owed to creditors
New Jersey Plan
• Small states favored
• Representation in Congress based on
equality — one vote/state
• Unicameral legislature
Virginia Plan
• Big states favored
• Representation in Congress based on
• Bicameral legislature
Great Compromise
• Roger Sherman — Connecticut
• Compromised NJ & VA Plans
• Two houses — one based on equality, one
based on population
3/5 Compromise
• North and South disagreed as how slaves
were to be counted towards population for
representation in Congress
• Each slave counted 3/5 of a man
• Every 5 slaves =3 people
• Supported the U.S. Constitution
• Wanted strong, central government
• James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John
• Opposed the U.S. Constitution
• Feared a strong, central government
• Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Richard
Henry Lee
James Madison
• Of Virginia
• Father of the U.S. Constitution
• Author of the Virginia Plan
• Federalist, Author Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
• Anti-Federalists wanted to include Bill of
Rights to ratify, the Constitution
• 1st 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
• Rights, Liberties, Freedoms
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom -1777
• Thomas Jefferson — enacted for the people
to have the freedom of religion
• Virginia Assembly adopted in 1786
• Influenced 1st amendment freedom of
Virginia Declaration of Rights
• Drafted 1776 — claim inherent rights of the
• Influenced Declaration of Independence
and Bill of Rights
• George Mason – author
United States Constitution
• Supreme law of the land —framework for
the organization of the United States
• Preamble — We the People(purpose of the
• 7 Articles
United States Constitution 1787
Major Events led to Constitution:
• First Continental Congress
• Second Congress
• Shays Rebellion
• Articles of Confederation
• Federalists v. Anti-Federalists
• 3/5 Compromise
• Revolutionary War
Checks and Balances
• Each branch has the power to check the
other branches…. to ensure no branch has
too much power
Separation of Powers
• Power divided among 3 independent
branches of government
• Making stronger government and limiting
govt at same time
George Washington
• his leadership helped the continental army
to stay intact, and survive long enough to
await France’s help. Despite the fact that his men lacked food and ammunition.
• 1st President of the U.S.
Ratification of U.S. Constitution
• 9 of 13 states needed to ratijy for it to go
into effect.
• 1st – Delaware, Last – Vermont
McCulloch v. Maryland
• States can not tax the national bank
• Supremacy Clause
Land Ordinance of 1785
• Under the Articles of Confederation, did not have power to tax
• So, to raise money for govt, sale of land
west of the original states
Marbury v. Madison
• Court case established power of Judicial
• Marbury appointed by President Adams as
Justice of Peace in DC but paperwork not
• Petitioned Supreme Court for Secretary of
State — Madison to deliver documents —
approve decision
Gibbons v. Ogden
• Court case — power to regulate interstate
• Over use of waterways between NY & NJ
Natural Rights
• Rights that can not be taken away
• Inalienable Rights —John Locke — life,
liberty, property
• American colonists wanting independence
from British rule
• American colonists against breaking away
from British rule…Ioyal to British empire.
Ben Franklin
• Constructed a treaty of alliance with
France, France comes to U.S. aid
• the daring attack by Washington on
Christmas Eve to get supplies, food,
clothing and ammunition