US History 1302 Exam 2

Mark Hanna
Republican senator from Ohio.
Used his money and business skills to manage McKinley’s campaigns.
Square Deal

TR’s domestic program formed upon three ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.

“Three C’s”

Aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking bad trusts and plutocracy.

Sherman Anti-Trust
Prohibited certain business activities that federal government regulators deemed to be anticompetitive. Opposes monopolies, cartels, etc.
“Trust Busting”
Regulation of anti-competitive conduct by companies, such as monopolies.
Northern Securities

Railroad trust formed in 1901 formed by E.H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J.D. Rockefeller, and their associates.

Controlled Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad.

Was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act by Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.

Swift V. United States
Commerce Clause allowed the government to regulate monopolies if it has a direct effect on commerce., 1905, a Supreme Court decision against the Beef Trust. Since both livestock and meat products of the packers moved in the stream of interstate commerce, both were subject to federal regulation.
Hepburn Act
(TR) 1906, , Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
Elkins Act
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
Coal Strike
(TR), 1902, , Coal mines of Pennsylvania. 140,000 workers, many illiterate immigrants had been frightfully exploited and accident plagued. Demanded a 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours. Mine owners refused to negotiate., TR threatens to bring in troops, then they listened
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 – Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the “patent” drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Panama Canal
(TR) , The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Trusts
This tariff, weakened by Senate member which it is partly named for, was the tariff bill created for Taft by the special session of congress he called. Feeling that it was too weak, but not skillful enough to simply not sign it, he made it into law as he knew he could not get more, and so appeared to the public to support the weak measure
Amendment XVI
Income Tax
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was “fit as a bull moose…”). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote, enabling Wilson to win
New Freedom
Democrat Woodrow Wilson’s political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete.
Underwood Tariff
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
– created Federal Trade Commission (investigate companies for unfair trade practices)
Adamson Act
1916 law that established 8 hour workday for railroad workers in order to avert a national strike
Amendment XVII
Direct Election of Senators
Amendment XVIII
Prohibition
Volstead Act
(WW), implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%, but then comes the speakeasies
Al Capone
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
Speakeasies
An illegal bar where drinks were sold, during the time of prohibition. It was called a Speakeasy because people literally had to speak easy so they were not caught drinking alcohol by the police.
Amendment XIV
Citizen rights guaranteed against power of the states
Sacco and Vanzetti
In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly
Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
KKK
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Gertrude Stein
American writer of experimental novels, poetry, essays, operas, and plays. In Paris during the 1920s she was a central member of a group of American expatriates that included Ernest Hemingway. Her works include Three Lives (1908), Tender Buttons (1914), and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933).
Ernest Hemingway
One of the most popular writers of the 1920s, Lost Generation writer, who wrote “A Farewell to Arms”
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Great Gatsby
W.E.B. Dubois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Langston Hughes
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
The Jazz Age
name referring to the 1920s; a time of cultural change; generally refers to the arts such as writing, music, artwork, and architecture
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Arms Limitation
Restriction on countries military arms imposed by outside forces.
Veterans Bonus
(C) passed over Coolidge’s veto, it credited WWI veterans with “adjusted service certificates” = to a dollar per day served in US and 1.25 per day served overseas, up to specified limits.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
Amelia Earhart
First female pilot to cross the Atlantic. She disappeared while trying to fly around the world.
Federal Farm Board
(HH) , Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920’s, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
October 29, 1929
Black Tuesday
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
…, Hoover-created gov lending bank to businesses “millionaire’s loan”
Bonus March
1932, 1000 unemployed WWI veterans marched on Washington demanding immediate payment of their bonuses which were to be given to them in 1945
Hoovervilles
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
Dust Bowl
A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry.
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Inaugural Address
a speech a President gives to accept the presidency
Hundred Days
(1933) the first hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s term as president
Emergency Banking Act
(FDR) 1933 , gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened., HUNDRED DAYS STARTS
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Federal Emergency Relief
A relief effort for the unemployeed with immediate relief goals
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
Emergency Farm Mortgage Act
Allowed debters to stay on farm for 5 years after bankrupcy. 1935-present relief
TVA
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
PWA
(Public Works Administration) Relief and Recovery. Harold Ikes was in charge. It was a longterm and industrial recovery and an unemployment relief.
SEC

Securities and Exchange Commission.

an independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies

WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Social Security
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Fireside Chats
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
Election of 1936
FDR (Democratic) reelected b/c of his New Deal programs and active style of personal leadership. Running against FDR was Alf Landon (Republic nominee)
Election of 1940
Rossevelt (dem) vs. Wendell Wilkie (rep), Roosevelt wins ; FDR had to declare that he would not send Americans to war in order to win ; greatly plagued the years before WWII ; won in a landslide ; first time a president was elected for a third term

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