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The changes in population size, density, dispersion, and age structure are known as
population dynamics.
You are an ecologist studying the population dynamics of an ecosystem. You observe that resources are not evenly distributed. You predict the population dispersion pattern is
clumped
The biotic potential of a population
is the maximum reproductive rate of a population.
Biotic potential is determined by
all of these answers.
A population will increase if
the biotic potential increases
Which of the following factors leads to an increase in biotic potential?
optimal level of critical nutrients
Carrying capacity refers to
the maximum size of population the environment will support
Humans have extended Earth’s carrying capacity for the human species by
controlling many diseases.
using energy resources at a rapid rate.
using material resources at a rapid rate.
increasing life span.
all of these answers.
Density-dependent population controls include all of the following except
human destruction of habitat.
Density-independent population controls include all of the following except
resource competition.
Which of the following terms best describes the type of population change you would expect to find for a muskrat population in a state that has just outlawed trapping?
irruptive
Wolves controlling deer populations are an example of
top-down population control
An r-selected species generally
is small and short-lived.
K-selected species
are generally less adaptable to change than r-strategists.
A K-selected species generally
has populations that follow an S-shaped growth curve.
Which of the following is an r-selected species?
insect
The population change in a particular year can be calculated by
(births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration)
The crude birth rate is the number of live births per __________ persons in a given year.
1,000
The highest crude birth rate and crude death rate are in
Africa.
Which of the following would contribute the greatest number to total population size in one year?
a country of 500 million people with a growth rate of 1.5%
The actual average replacement-level fertility for the whole world is slightly higher than
2 children per couple.
The most useful measure of fertility for projecting future population change is the
total fertility rate.
The industrialized country with the highest teenage pregnancy rate is
the United States.
Social factors affecting birth and fertility rates include
attitudes toward large families and birth control.
average levels of education and affluence.
urbanization.
poverty.
all of these answers.
Which of the following statements is false?
The rise in the size of the human population is due primarily to a higher birth rate.
Two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are
life expectancy and infant mortality rate.
A high infant mortality rate is most often associated with
undernutrition.
Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children out of 1,000 that die
by their first birthday.
All of the following reasons help explain why the United States has one of the highest infant mortality rates of developed countries except
the older age of pregnant women as a result of many women delaying having children.
The age structure of a population is the number or percentage of
persons of each sex at each age level.
Countries that have achieved ZPG have an age structure that
shows little variation in population by age.
Rapidly growing countries have an age structure that
has a broad-based pyramid
Which of the following implies the greatest built-in momentum for population growth?
a large number of people under age 15
The term demographic transition refers to
the decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates when a country becomes industrialized.
The demographic transition model helps to explain why
death rates fall before birth rates
Some experts fear that the developing countries lack sufficient __________ to allow the demographic transition to occur.
capital
Women tend to have fewer and healthier children when they
live in societies in which their individual rights are protected.
have access to paying jobs outside the home.
have access to education.
have access to birth control.
all of these answers.
Which of the following statements about India is (are) true?
Many cultural norms favor large families.
Which of the following strategies appear to play the least important role in slowing global population growth?
economic disincentives to have large families
Which of the following is not one of the goals of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development?
Increase access to education, especially for boys.
Which of the following is not one of the goals of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development?
Emphasize that child-rearing and family planning responsibilities belong to women.
Vocabulary: Estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years.
Total Fertility Rate
Look at the age structure diagrams below. Which diagram best represents the population of Kenya?
2
Look at the age structure diagrams below. Which diagram best represents the population of Japan?
3
Look at the age structure diagrams below. Which diagram best represents the population of India?
1
You live in Rubics Cube Land where the people have long, nimble fingers and where the growth rate is 0.121%. About how many decades will it take for your country’s population to double?
60
Which of the above three countries has the greatest proportion of people ages 65 and older?
Germany
What percentage of the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the United States and Germany are 0-4 years old?
18; 6.5; 4.5
Which of the above three countries is most likely experiencing rapid growth?
Congo
Which of the above three countries is most likely experiencing negative growth?
Germany